Lecture 19 bureaucracy and policy making march 20/18. Patrimonial administration: personal agents of monarch, rooted in royal household. Bureaucratic administration why: more demanding and dangerous warfare, more complex economy and society more efficient state was needed, democratic pressures. Implementation with discretion: agenda setting and policy advice. Policy advice what politicians know matters. Political stability even with spoils system. Not every bureaucracy is the same: french centralization, merit basis, us decentralization, spoils system. Not every bureaucrat is the same: specialists, generalists. 20th century massive growth in: areas of state activity, administrative capacity. Late 20th/early 21st centuries new public management: contracting out, quangos (quazi-autonomous non-governmental organizations, performance incentives. Rational actor model: a helpful simplification: sees humans as inherently ration w the ability to identify what they want, order these wants and strategize how to pursue these. Bureaucratic organization models: (cid:858)orga(cid:374)izatio(cid:374)al process(cid:859) departmental values and standard operating procedures (cid:858)bureaucratic politics(cid:859) separate interests, bargaining produce policy.