Political Science 1020E Lecture Notes - Deep Ecology, Free-Market Environmentalism, Environmentalism

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Published on 16 Nov 2011
School
Western University
Department
Political Science
Course
Political Science 1020E
Professor
Page:
of 3
June 2, 2008
Ideologies: Environmentalism
Sees the natural environment as paramount
Conservationist Environmentalists
Wish to preserve the environment
oDo not want all resources to be fair game for the market economy
Ex: national parks
Supports voluntary recycling and replanting programmes
Supports some government regulation
Main Idea
oTake better care of the environment and we will have resources for future
growth
Many of us are now at least “conservationist environmentalists”
Reform Liberal Environmentalists
Main Idea
oWe must take care of the environment for our own health
Strong government intervention is often needed to do so
We must avoid the “tragedy of the commons”
oEx: everyone pollutes the air because we rationalize that our pollution
alone causes the costs to be less than the benefits of polluting
The problem is, when everyone does this, the costs do outweigh
the benefits
oDo so through governments, which can strongly regulate the environment
and punish offenders or “free market environmentalism”
Argues that more natural resources should be made private so
people will look after them properly
Deep Ecology Environmentalists
Radical human welfare ecologists
Main Idea
oEnvironment is an end in itself
We have no right to exploit it
oAnti-materialistic
Rejects both capitalism and socialism
oBelieves strongly in animal rights/liberation, rain forest preservation,
organic foods, vegetarianism
oOften characterized as “tree-huggers
**NOTE**
1
An organization such as Greenpeace would have elements of all the above 3
groups
Ideologies: Totalitarianism
State totally dominates society in an attempt to radically transform it
oAnti-pluralistic
oActs in the name of the “people”
Mass rallies
Propaganda essential to it
State above law
Usually despotic
Rule based on coercion
North Korea
oLast totalitarian state left
C. Friedrich & Z. Brzezinski
An official ideology
Single party state led by one person
Terroristic police state
State communications monopoly
State weapons monopoly
Centrally directed economy
oMain Examples
USSR under Stalin
Nazi Germany
Ideologies: Authoritarianism
Similar to totalitarianism
oLess state control
oLess radical/utopian
Right-Wing Authoritarianism
Conservative in nature
Fairly tolerant of a pluralistic society and a market economy
Statist, “state corporation”
oState dominates official groups
Ex: labour, business
Anti-socialist, Militaristic
Examples
oMany Latin American countries, South Korea before 1988, Taiwan before
1990s, Iran
Left-Wing Authoritarianism
Lean towards socialism and nationalism
Gentler, kinder form of totalitarianism
2
Militaristic
Examples
oLibya, Syria, Cuba, several African countries
3