Vital to western governments in the 21st century the last 40 years. Government must do what the private sector cannot do/does poorly: bureaucrats, specialized positions, career positions marked by tenure, merit recruitment or patronage, should be non-partisan, hierarchal. Assistant deputy minister (appointed: follows rules. Ex: police work, teaching: substantial federal cutbacks to the federal public service have occurred since. 1995: there have been provincial cutbacks as well. Ex: ontario: staffing of the public service in canada is supposed to be based on merit, affirmative action is becoming a factor, patronage granting positions because of political connections remains. In canada, a change in government often leads to minimal changes in top-level bureaucrats a reality: unlike the u. s. Types of federal bureaucratic structures in canada: federal government departments, implement federal policies, headed by minister, crown agencies. Minister responsible for the workings of the department under the principle of ministerial responsibility: deputy minister, unelected.