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Political Science 1020E Lecture Notes - Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Liquor Control Board Of Ontario, Young Offenders Act

Political Science
Course Code
Political Science 1020E
Charles Jones

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June 19, 2008
The Political Process Contd’
The Administration
Government needs administration to implement policies
oStudy of how government operates/puts things into place
o“Office Holders”
Vital to Western governments in the 21st century
oBureaucratic expertise and advise essential to elected politicians
oGenerally, in the West, the “size” of government has expanded greatly in
the last 40 years
Government must do what the private sector cannot do/does poorly
oSpecialized positions
oCareer positions marked by tenure
oMerit recruitment or patronage
oShould be non-partisan
Minister of ___________ (elected)
Deputy Minister (appointed)
Assistant Deputy Minister (appointed)
oFollows rules
Canadian Administration
Over 200,000 federal civil servants
o500,000 work for federal government in some fashion
Federal, provincial, and municipal governments employ 1 in 4 Canadians
o“Public Sector Workers”
oMany more have “private sector jobs” which directly depend on
government contracts
It is often difficult to say where the “public service” begins and ends
oSome take a narrow view to say that the “public service” are only those
who help the government govern
oOthers say that it also includes functions carried out/contracted out by
Ex: Police work, teaching
Substantial federal cutbacks to the federal “public service” have occurred since
oThere have been provincial cutbacks as well
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Ex: Ontario
Staffing of the public service in Canada is supposed to be based on merit
oAffirmative action is becoming a factor
oPatronage – granting positions because of political connections – remains
a reality
In Canada, a change in government often leads to minimal changes in top-level
oUnlike the U.S.
Types of Federal Bureaucratic Structures in Canada
Federal Government departments
oImplement federal policies
oHeaded by Minister
Minister responsible for the workings of the department under the
principle of ministerial responsibility
oDeputy Minister, unelected
Often most influential person in departments, even more so than
Crown Agencies
oAre not generally responsible to a Minister but usually report to
oCrown Corporations
Corporations under federal control which perform a certain social
or economic function which usually is deemed too important to be
left to the private sector alone
Ex: Canada Post, CBC, Bank of Canada, National Film
Board, LCBO
oRegulatory Agencies
Help to define and enforce government regulations
Laws which affect private corporations
Semi-autonomous and “quasi-legislative”
Ex: CRTC, Atomic Energy Control Board
oAdvisory Bodies
Advise politicians on major issues
Mostly temporary
Ex: Royal Commissions, task forces, PWBKC (Putting
Women Back in the Kitchen Commission)
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