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Political Science 1020E Lecture Notes - Preemptive War, Edmund Burke, Neoconservatism

Political Science
Course Code
Political Science 1020E
Charles Jones

of 2
Lecture: Socialism Nov. 10 th
, 2011
Conservatism (Final)
Socialism in General
Early Socialism, Karl Marx
Read to pg. 151-190 B&D
Traditional Conservatism
- Michael Oakeshot 1901-1990: modern day Burkean
- Protect and preserve the social fabric
- Interconnected individuals
- Politics is attending to social arrangements
Conservatism Today
- individualist conservatism, neo-conservatism, religious conservatism
Individualist Conservatism
- Ronald Reagan (US president)
- Margaret Thatcher
- “free market” conservatives
- freedom to compete without government interference
- ‘no such thing as society’ (Thatcher)
- cut spending for health and welfare, but increase spending for military
- Dick Cheney – former vice-president
- Disillusioned 1960s welfare liberals
- Capitalism’s cultural contradictions
- General cultural decline
- ‘pre-emptive war’ and ‘regime change’
The Religious Right
- Christian fundamentalism
- Bring Christian morality into politics
- Economic liberals, cultural interventionists
- War on terror
Posner on Conservatisms
- economic conservatives
- security conservatives
- social (mainly religious) conservatives
- disagreements amongst conservatives
Socialism in General
- basic goods should be produced with the aim of benefiting all
- property should be owned by society
- against capitalism and its unequal distribution of power
- industrial revolution led to dangerous, difficult, undignified factory work
- moral objections to exploitation, poverty and greed
- ‘scientific’ claims about historical change and the end of capitalism
Freeden: Core Socialist Ideas
1. group (class) as basic social unit
2. equality: remove hierarchy, redistribute based on need
3. labour (productive activity) is the main feature of human nature
4. ideal of welfare or flourishing: end poverty, promote free participation
5. history is going somewhere, and we can help it get there
Early Socialism: Thomas More 1478-1535
- communal ownership
- abolish money and private property
- no more pride, greed, envy
- conflict and inequality are unnatural
Early Socialism: Saint-Simon 1760-1825
- class based historical stages
- belief based economic systems
- replace capitalist inefficiency and waste with expert planning
Early Socialism: Robert Owen 1771-1858
- bad conduct stems from a corrupt social system
- capitalism rewards greed and selfishness
- produce cooperatively for the public
Karl Marx 1818-1883 Life
- drinking, duelling, law, philosophy
- radical journalism: Brussels, Paris
- 1849-1883: ‘temporary’ exile in London – political agitation, family and poverty,
scholarly research