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Lecture 25

Political Science 1020E Lecture Notes - Lecture 25: Animal Rights Movement, Islamism, Mcworld

Political Science
Course Code
Political Science 1020E
Bruce Morrison

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Lecture 25 – Radical Islam and the Future of Ideologies
According to animal liberationists, speciesists:
a. Follow the argument of Darwin’s Origin of Species
b. Believe humans are superior to non-humans
c. Emphasize the importance of speciation in evolutionary development
d. Isolate the fitness of specific traits
Radical Islam
Islam, Mohammed, and the Qur’an
Islam – through submitting to God’s will one enjoys heaven; literally means submission
Mohammed (570-632AD) – messenger, latest and last of the great prophets recognized
by Islam
oShared beliefs between monotheistic religions (Judaism, Christianity, Islam)
oRecognize Moses, Jesus
oMost respected man in Muslim tradition, Mary (mother of Jesus) is revered by
Islam and Islamism holds both Jesus and Mary in high belief (not touched by sin
at birth)
Qur’an – means recitation
oDivine wisdom passed down from God, by the angel Gabriel to Mohammed
Hadith – description of the Sunna; Mohammed’s own words and deeds which Muslims
are supposed to emulate
Islam and Politics
The spread of Islam
o7th century in Arabia – spread quickly to Africa, Spain, East Asia
oSunni – leadership of Islam is CEO
oShia – leader is infallible, divinely gifted, succession of Mohammed’s bloodline
Five Pillars
oShahadah – profess faith, bearing witness
oSalat – ritual prayer (5 times a day towards Mecca)
oZakat – charitable donations, duty to give to charity
oSawm – annual fasting especially during Ramadan

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oHajj – pilgrimage to Mecca once a year
Jihad – Arabic word meaning effort/struggle/endeavour (practice of religion requires jihad
– struggle vs evil)
oLesser – struggle against external enemies of Islam, Mohammed’s military
campaigns in 7th century, etc.
oGreater – internal struggle vs evil, sinfulness, temptation
Shar’ia (Sharia) – Islamic law
oLaws against usury, interest, adultery, taxing wealthy to benefit poor
oSecularization of societies in 20th century (i.e. Egypt) – resisted in many places
Four External Threats to Islam
Crusades (1095-1300AD) – Roman Catholic starts military campaigns to achieve past
influence in Jerusalem
European Imperialism – French, British, Dutch in late 19th century
oHistory of western, Christian societies colonizing and ruling Muslim people
The State of Israel
oEstablishment of a Jewish homeland in a prominently Muslim area supported by
US and UK
Western ideas of ‘Modernity’
oLiberalism, secularism, democracy, sexual equality, materialism present a threat
to the fundamentalist beliefs of Islam (radicalism views)
Fifth Threat to Islam – USA
United States covert interventions (CIA)
oSyria, Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq x2 – overthrowing government, person who is put
into place is friendly to US geopolitical policies
United State Military Attacks
oSince 1980 – USA has invaded, attacked, bombed, occupied a lot of places a lot
of times
US Support for corrupt regimes
oIn Muslim countries where rulers are in the US pockets (Egypt, Saudi Arabia,
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