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Political Science 1020E Lecture Notes - Golden Horseshoe, Some Cities

Political Science
Course Code
Political Science 1020E
Peter Fragiskatos

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PoliSci1020E February 29, 2012
Lecture 21
Guest Speaker: Professor Andrew Sancton
City Boundaries: How they come to be, where they are, and why they matter.
Municipality Origins
Municipalities have their own legal origins. They do not fall into the category of
government headed by the Queen/Monarch. Unlike provincial and federal governments,
they are founded on the basis of corporations in 11th and 12th Century Britain. (E.g.
Similar to the Hudson’s Bay Company, but on a smaller scale.)
Established through the passing of Charters.
The BNA Act of 1867 declared that municipalities were under the jurisdiction of the
provinces (still are to this day).
Some municipalities in fact, to this day, refer to themselves as corporations (e.g.
Corporation of the City of London). This is because they function as corporations, even
though they are necessary for a successful city (needed for urban services such as: water,
police, hydro, fire rescue, etc.).
Boundaries in General
We tend to assume (and rightly so), that boundaries are static. However, it is important
to remember that boundaries are changeable and contestable.
People don’t like to touch boundaries because it is an extremely touchy and difficult issue
to address.
See Sancton’s book The Limits of Boundaries.
Cities are becoming so important that their constitutional statuses should be changed, so
that they can be more self-governing.
City boundaries are difficult to chart because they are constantly expanding.
The Death and Life of Great American Cities by influential writer, Jane Jacobs.
o Argues that cities are more important and impactful than provincial nation states.
o Didn’t pay attention to boundaries and specified government jurisdiction.
o Vouched for a currency unique to each city.
o Saw Singapore as an ideal municipality it is a city that is its own country.
o Liked small countries with big cities. E.g. Copenhagen, Denmark.
o Some cities are so big that they become their own province. E.g. Berlin used to be
in Brandenburg, Hamburg surrounded part of its three surrounding provinces,
and Bremen a part of Lower Saxony. Many believe that this should be applied to
Toronto, Ontario; Montreal, Quebec; and Vancouver, British Columbia.
Over ½ of Ontario’s population inhabits the Greater Golden Horseshoe. The Greenbelt
Area is more specific, and growth has been frozen (cities and industries are not allowed
to expand). Even smaller, is the actual city of Toronto (composed of a combination of
the municipalities approximately 2.5 million people).
Annexations and Amalgamations
Annexation: addition of land to the designated territorial jurisdiction of a municipality.
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