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Political Science 1020E Lecture Notes - Atlantic Charter, Sexual Slavery, Bourgeoisie

Political Science
Course Code
Political Science 1020E
Peter Fragiskatos

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PoliSci1020E April 3, 2012
Lecture 25
Consequences of Imperialism and Ways in Which it is Sustained
Conflict Continued
Humanitarian Intervention
The Syrian Dilemma
Can We Have Access to the Truth When Studying International Affairs? (Re: Kony 2012)
Census. A journalist’s report can be taken seriously if they are actually on the
ground/on location. Once something is seen and heard, this experience need not convey
opinions (e.g. bombing of civilians) it can be an observation or can (also) include an
opinion. Journalists usually find a way intentionally or unintentionally weave their
opinion into their reports.
Do those who describe what is going on have a credible record? If they have
assessed conflict situations and after the fact, have been right, they are often deemed
Video: Malcolm X’s Wake Up, Clean Up, Stand Up. READ AUTOBIOGRAPHY.
Group Identity
o One can be many things and belong to many groups. These groups can be
centered around nationality (culture, religion, food, tradition, etc.), gender,
occupation, and even social roles (mothers and fathers tend to identify with one
o Provides a sense of support, giving humans a group of people that they can
depend on. This helps overcome personal, economic, social, and political
o Groups are held together by identities!
o Identity arises in the human need to categorize the world in order to make sense
of it. Kant: Things need to label everything and everyone in order to make sense
of a complex and sometimes overwhelming world. Once we understand who we
are, we can understand what we want.
o The answer you give to the question Who am I? will determine your self-esteem.
Self-esteem is vital. Terror management theory claims that it helps us cope with
the fear of death by getting us to think less about death and more about the
things that make us feel good. It also helps us gage how we are accepted by
Political leaders are the ones who try to keep group identity and self-esteem alive.
Malcolm X
o Successfully attempted to instill self-confidence in his (black) people.
o Claims that the following are blacks who deserve recognition and attention:
W.E.B. Du Bois. He was the first to address the concerns of African-Americans
(before Malcolm X).

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When a group’s identity is denigrated, conflict emerges. However, this conflict has to be
mobilized by leaders!
Categorizing Conflicts
o Conflicts that have less than 25 battle-related deaths per year are called minor
conflicts. When there are between 25 and 1000 battle deaths per year, this is an
intermediate conflict. When there are over 1000 in each year, this is called a
o War can take place both between and within states. When within, rebels can be
fighting against the state, or against another rebel group. When you have fighting
taking place within the state and over 1000 deaths, you have an internal
war/civil war. The definition is heavily criticized, because it assumes that
conflict is only something experienced by those directly and physically affected.
Most deaths of civilians are not as a result of being caught in the cr0ss-fire, but
many more die and aren’t considered “battle-related deaths” (sometimes
thousands die in the cross-fire, but millions die in total).
o Why so many civilians deaths? War causes destruction of health care and
farming systems, rise in disease, and starvation. War creates further problems:
low economic growth, and persistent threat and lack of trust in society (danger of
recurring conflict).
o Most wars in the world today are civil wars. The 80% of 160 wars that took place
from 1945-end of the 20th century, were civil wars! 30 conflicts took place
between 2000-2009, 27 were civil wars most taking place in the 3rd world.
Why is there so much civil war in the 3rd world?
o People are fueled by their basic needs (basic needs theory) and unmet
expectations. There is never just one thing that causes conflict.
o Failed State Building rooted in imperialism’s legacy. War and state
formations share a natural relationship. War made the state and state made war.
The European Experience. In the 17th century, soldiers/mercinaries
would be hired by kings to fight wars. However, it was too expensive to
pay for, and they were not always loyal/reliable. Solution: conscription.
To pay for this (paying for weapons, uniforms, and food), populations
were taxed. To make taxation possible, institutions formed to organize
tax collection, military administration & academies, and preparation (still
exist today). Population demanded security (courts and parliament),
freedom of speech, etc. in bargaining for conditions of taxation. The
result is that the state has the ability to exercise control over the people
(in Europe).
o In the 3rd world, the experience played out differently. Since the 1960’s
decolonization took place. Britain and France were the key imperial powers, but
the war devastated their economies, and couldn’t afford to keep their overseas
colonies. The problem was that these states were imposed and not designed to
meet the people’s needs the populations had no say over what happened.
Automatically, the states lacked legitimacy, and there were huge expectations
that remained unfulfilled (conflict arises). In addition, the imperial powers didn’t
develop systems for tax collection schools, hospitals, roads, etc. were not
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