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Lecture 11

Political Science 1020E Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Oligarchy, Single Transferable Vote, Social Inequality


Department
Political Science
Course Code
Political Science 1020E
Professor
Erin Hannah
Lecture
11

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Instuonalizing Democracy
-Liberal Democracy: who should be subject to elecon?
a) pares and policymakers
b) not bureaucrats
c) usually not judges
d) not CEOs, doctors, etc.
How?
a) Universal surage
b) Secret ballot
c) Compeve elecon
d) A free and independent society
What Do Elecons Do?
-boom up: (opmisc and democrac)
a) Produce policians- the right stu?
-Heywood asks if elecons are the best training for wring laws and administering economies
b) Make governments- directly or indirectly
c) representaon- or electoral punishment?
d) in'uence policy- promises
-top down
a) strengthen elites- channel popular discontent
b) sustain democracy—governments change, not regime
Electoral systems
-the rules governing elecons
-they can aect:
a) elecon results:
-who wins
-by how much
b) how people feel about democracy:
-included?
-represented?
Majoritarianism
a) Choose candidates
Proporonal Representaon
a) Choose pares, perhaps also candidates- rank ordered
Majoritarianism
b) In single member districts (SMD) elect one person from a parcular district
Proporonal Representaon
b) in mul member districts (MMD) a single district produce many candidates
Majoritarianism-
c) winner takes all
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Proporonal Representaon
c)winner takes some
Electoral Districts
-we are in London North Centre
-it is a single member district
Variees of Majoritarianism: Single Member Plurality
-single member districts
-First past the post system- a plurality of votes wins the seat (doesn’t have to be 50% or more)
-allows for the possibility that fewer votes sll give people access to the seat
First Past the Post in Debate
Pros:
-districts with own representaves (or ridings)
-strong and stable single-party governments (makes things happen)
Cons:
-produces disproporonate results (you can win 100% of seats even if you only get 35%)
-manufactures governing majories (majority seats in parliament with 40% of the vote)
-‘wasted’ votes
Majoritarianism: Second Ballot System
-8rst round: majority winners prevail
-construct majority winners within the districts
-second round: usually get a majority if there isn’t already one because
a) only two candidates go forward
b) weaker ones out, the rest consolidate le9-right
Pros:
-majories enhance legimacy
-pares broaden base of support
Cons:
-only a bit fairer to small pares
-will people show up for second round vote?
Majoritarianism: Alternave Vote
-voters rank single member district candidates
-if no majority, boom candidate dropped, voters second choices counted
-repeat if necessary
Pros:
-avoids ‘wasted’ votes- realisc possibility that their second or third choice may be chosen
-so encourages parcipaon
Cons:
-not necessarily more proporonal than 8rst past the post
-small party second preferences favoured
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