Liberal democracy: who should be subject to election? (a)parties and policymakers (b)not bureaucrats (c)usually not judges (d)not ceos, doctors, etc. How? (a)universal suffrage (b)secret ballot (c)competitive election (d)a free and independent society. What do elections do? (not touching on all the points- just the ones that need explanation) Bottom up: (a)produce politicians- the right stuff? (b)make governments- directly or indirectly (c)representation- or electoral punishment? (d)influence policy- promises, promises. Top down: (a)strengthen elites- channel popular discontent (b)sustain democracy- governments change, not regime. Represented? (a) choose parties perhaps also (a) choose candidates candidates- rank ordered (b) in single member districts (smd) (b) in multi-member districts (mmd) (c) winner takes some (c) winner takes all. First past the post (fptp)- a plurality of votes wins seat. Liberal party: 39. 5% of vote, 184 seats (54. 4%) Second round: usually get a majority because: (a)only two candidates go forward (b)weaker ones out, the rest consolidate left-right. Only a bit fairer to small parties.