Political Science 1020E Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Positive Liberty, Negative Liberty, Cosmopolitanism

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Lecture 6: Liberty Pt.1
Ex. Q: Which set of goods is most important according to J Rawl?
A: basic liberties
Social Justice vs. Global Justice
Is Global Justice More Important than Social Justice?
Global child mortality: six million deaths annually
Cosmopolitanism: (1) all human beings are fundamentally (morally)
equal and (2) justice requires impartiality.
One proposal: extend principles of social justice to the entire world
(ex. Focus on the globally least advantaged; Rawls)
Three Defenses of Justice-Based Duties to the Near and Dear
(according to Swift)
Societies are schemes of social cooperation; justice is about
distributing the cooperative surplus
Value of state membership: shared citizenship
Value of shared nationality: identity based on shared history,
language, culture
Three Distinctions
Isaiah Berlin’s Two Concepts of Liberty
Distinguished negative liberty from positive liberty
Negative liberty is ‘freedom from’ something; positive liberty is
‘freedom to’ do something
Problem: any freedom is both a negative and a positive (freedom from
and a freedom to.)
MacCallum’s Triadic Concept of Freedom
There is only one concept of liberty (or freedom)
‘X is free from Y to do/become Z’
X is an agent, Y is an obstacle or constraint, and Z is a goal or end
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