Political Science 1020E Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Gender Pay Gap, Social Inequality, True Women

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1. Lectures 8 & 9- Equality
Political Obligation
Outdated ideal, many reject it
Out of touch with today’s individualistic and aspirational voters
Theoretical Objections
We shouldn’t be focused on comparisons; we should be concerned that everyone has enough
Egalitarian Plateau
The state should treat all its citizens with equal concern & respect
Disagreement: What “treatment as an equal” amounts to
Equality distribution vs. Treatment as equal
Equality as a distributive ideal: focus on who has how much
Treatment as an Equal: ensuring equal citizenship status for all
Rational Equality: people should relate to each other as equals; the relationship we
value in a democratic society; rejecting hierarchy; promoting equal consideration
oNot doing so is a violation of human rights
Swift’s treatment as an equal: 2 examples
Consider the formal & effective liberty note:
1. Equality before the law: law applies to everyone
a. Formal equality- no one is above the law; same law that applies to everyone
b. Effective equality- economic equalities should not affect anyone’s access to legal
resources
2. Equal Citizenship
a. Formal- everyone has the right to basic rights (freedom of speech, etc)
b. Effective- secure access to the goods to effectively perform the role as citizen
(freedom from poverty, education, etc)
b.i. Ensuring that the wealthy don’t impinge on political power
Equality of Opportunity: 3 Conceptions
1. Minimal conception- “right- liberal”, Bourgeois view
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