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Lecture 11

Political Science 2103A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Mobutu Sese Seko, Execution By Firing Squad, Joseph Kasa-Vubu


Department
Political Science
Course Code
Political Science 2103A/B
Professor
Jun Fang
Lecture
11

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LECTURE – THE MURDER/ASSASSINATION OF PATRICE LUMUMBA
Leader of the Congolese independence movement
First elected PM of the Republic of Congo
Deposed in a military coup d’etat less than 3 months into power
oSent to Katanga rebels on January 17th, 1961 and shot dead by a four-man firing squad
oHis body was later dug up (second time), dismantled and dissolved in acid
Joseph-Desire Mobutu – chief-of-staff, head of army – against Lumumba
Lumumba – anti-Belgian – Mobutu was supported by the US/Belgium
oOriginally placed under house arrest, and eventually escaped and was later recaptured
WHO KILLED LUMUMBA
oBelgian government – Killing carried out by Katanga authorities
oJacques Brassine (1990): Lumumba’s murder was an internal affair and Belgium played
no role
oLudo De Witte (1996 & 1999): Execution ordered and suspended by Belgian officers;
the state of Katanga was a puppet regime created by Belgium
Book – far reaching influence
oBELGIAN PARLIAMENTARY INVESTIGATION COMMISSION (2000);
Belgium wanted to overthrow Lumumba
Funded anti-Lumumba forces
PM asked Congolese President to Dismiss Lumumba
Asked Mobutu to arrest Lumumba
No signs of Belgian involvement in the actual execution
No signs of Belgian prevention of the actual execution
US – highly motivated and involved in the killing of Lumumba
Relations with the Soviet Union during the Cold War era
Lumumba was a strong opponent of Western/Belgian colonialism
oJune 1960 – Congolese independence
Lumumba – impromptu speech
THE CONGO CRISIS
oEARLY JULY 1960
Congolese army rebelled against Belgian officers
Governments decision to “Africanize” the army and the consequent departure of
Belgian officers
July 11th – Katanga declares independence
July 14th – UN intervention (after US turned down the request for help form
Lumumba)
oAugust 8th – South Kasai declares Independence
Lumumba’s request for Soviet help
oSeptember 5th – Lumumba is dismissed by President Joseph Kasa-Vubu
Lumumba – deposed the president
oSeptember 9th – Mobutu places Lumumba under hosue arrest
oSeptember 14th – Mobutu staged a coup (with assistance from the CIA) that officially
overthrew Lumumba’s government
oNovember 27th – Lumumba escapes from house arrest, is caught approx. 15 days later
oJanuary 17th, 1961 – delivered to Katanga rebels, shot and killed by firing squad
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