The Origins of The International System .pdf

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Published on 9 Feb 2013
Wednesday, 9 January, 2013
The Origins of The International System
- Pre 1500: About 500 independent political units in Europe
- 1500-1800: Dynastic or absolutists states try to maintain political unity
- Division between state and society (feudal system, etc.)
- Constant interstate wars
- Transnational elites prevented total wars of destructions (a lot to do with the fact that
rulers where inter related)
- Post-1800: Consolidation after the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars
- In 1900, 20 independent political units in Europe
- Development of the modern nation-state (nationalism caused both war and unification)
17th Century European Conflict
- Outbreak of the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)
- Begins with Protestant uprising in Bohemia and Austria, spreads throughout continent
and loses its religious motivation
- One of the longest continuous wars
- Use of mercenary armies and territorial grabs
- Thirty Years’ War ends with the Peace of Westphalia (1648)
Peace of Westphalia
- Treaty established sovereignty in international law
- Recognized that sovereignty rests with secular rulers
- Gave each ruler the right to determine the religion of their state
18th Century Europe: Great Powers
- Generally, great powers are both economically and militarily strong
- Major players in the system with relatively large territory and population
- France, England, Austria, Russia, Prussia, and the Ottoman Empire
- Goal was to prevent a singly power from dominating the system
War of Spanish Succession (1702-1713)
- “Grad Alliance” of Austria, England, and the Netherlands versus France
- Prevented French domination over Spain
War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748_
- France, Spain and Prussia VS Austria and England
The Seven Years’ War (1756-1763)
- Austria, France and Russia opposed England and Prussia
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