Political Science 2231E Lecture Notes - Cuban Missile Crisis, Operation Rolling Thunder, Nuclear Arms Race

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Wednesday, 30 January, 2013
Waltz on Bipolarity
- Bipolarity preceded two-power nuclear competition
- Crises will recur
- Conclusion:
- Bipolarity is stable - but why?
- Waltz argues product of scientific advancements
- He argues Bipolarity means there is a large gap between U.S, S.U. and all other states
- Is bipolarity durable
- Argues crises allow bipolarity to remain stable. Argues that it allows tensions not to
escalate. Therefore, he concludes bipolarity is stable.
- Classical realist argue that bipolarity is not durable bc other groups of powers want to
test the power of hegemonies. Waltz disagrees and argues that shuffling of alliances is
what leads to war. Coalitions
The End of The Cold War
The Korean War (1950-1953)
- U.S begins to view communist actions as a threat to its interests
- The American military expands throughout Asia
- U.S. perceives a united Sino-Soviet front
- Reflects the possibility of limited war in a nuclear world
- Left U.S with greater sense of optimism with dealing with S.U. during Cold War
- Set tone of non-nuclear Cold War
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
- Removed optimism
- Soviets sent missiles to Cuba between May and October 1962 in Operation Anadyr
- President Kennedy responds with a military blockade of Cuba
- President Kennedy engages in (what is thought to be) direct communication with Khrushchev
- USSR withdraws missiles after JFK promises not to invade Cuba
Outcomes of Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
- Relaxation of Cold War tensions
- Agreement on a limited nuclear test ban treaty
- Establishment of Moscow-Washington “hotline”
- USSR engages in a nuclear arms race with the U.S.
- Example of brinkmanship (Creation/Manipulation of risk or rationality of irrationality) -
Illustrates that gains are made a little piece at a time = Salami
Involvement in the Third World
- The USSR establishes ties with newly independent nation in Asia and Africa
- The United States seeks to limit Soviet influence in these developing countries
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