Political Science 2231E Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: General Agreement On Tariffs And Trade, Neoliberalism, Hegemony

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Neo-Liberalism
The main disagreement between neoliberals and all realists is about cooperation
According to neoliberals, cooperation is possible in global politics = collective action problem -- if you
are in a dorm, last slice of pizza, how do you determine who gets the last slice of pizza?
Realists/Neorealists
Neoliberals
Temporary
Permanent
Base survival & power
Incidental
Structurally significant
Does cooperation affect how we relate to one another over the long haul?
Neo-classical liberals
-
Neo-conservatives
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Structural liberals
-
etc...
-
Many other names and variations:
There is rationality in the world -- and it trumps out any other thoughts we might have (impulses
of power) -- universal human characteristic
-
Self-interest is rationally pursued -- ie. does it make sense for us to back these people based on
the goals/interests we have? -- harmony of interests
-
There is interdependence amongst actors
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Cooperation is possible & may be necessary -- Falk's "humane governance" requires cooperation
between states
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Government is necessary, but needs restraint (John Locke)
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Centralization of power is BAD
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State regime type matters & so does economic type & social values (Fukuyama's End of History
claim)
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History is progressive and linear
-
Individual liberty is supreme (individual over the collective ) -- state has right to be sovereign, but
that sovereignty has right to be challenged if it is harming individual liberty
-
Assumptions:
As an actor, they are looking at different actors
-
Want to look at structure as source of change and interest (looking at social and economic
interests, economics) -- look at interrelationship between actors and structures… have to give
importance to low politics and non-state actors
-
Most waffle between structure and actors as most important
-
Disagreement with Neorealism:
Bretton Woods project that consolidated and protected global economy collapses, having
economic crises emerge and the rearranging of global economy (non-state actors in economic
sphere start to take on a more important role)
-
In the South, we've had no state led development for all these years (didn't provide
telecom services, massively underdeveloped)… focus on foreign private investment to put
in a school (ie. Nike hospital, school along with Nike factory)
In the North, the state is there to hold your hand (welfare state) … neoliberal state
Rumblings about international economic order
-
Transnational corporations and NGOs
Non-state actors are becoming prominent
-
OPEC oil cartel is self-sustaining (to control price of oil) -- after the Arab-Israeli war
GATT and other inter-state trade organizations
Inter-state cooperation:
-
Neoliberalism emerges in the 1970s, popularized in 1980s because:
Lecture 4 - Liberalism
October-10-12
10:33 AM
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GATT and other inter-state trade organizations
UN, NATO, and other security organizations
It is significant and needs to be paid attention
The two sides to Liberalism are (1) political, and (2) economic
Political
1.
The rights of the individual are important
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Freedom from the state
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Liberal representative democracy
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Political pluralism
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The state is a contract amongst individuals to live in a cooperative peaceful community
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In General...
"Perpetual Peace" -- liberal war theory by Kant -- is the thought that liberal democracies do not fight
because they are like-minded and have political cost
Economic
2.
Would all states being liberal democracies would stop war? Disagree
Jeremy Bentham (coined the word "international")
Markets are the most efficient means of organizing human production, exchange
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There should be free trade among all nations
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States should provide: legal system, safety
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Utilitarianism: happiness of the most number of people
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Markets should be allowed to operate with minimal interference (government intervention)
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In General…
John Maynard Keynes argued that you need to develop the global liberal capitalist order through the
Bretton Woods agreement to manage the global economy -- his ideas sway after the Great Depression
Government intervention in economy
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Get economy up and running
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Use fiscal policy to even out economic high and lows
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This did not involve: printing more money to stimulate economy
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Keynes suggest pump and prime as a policy -- this involved:
Take apart the welfare state -- social security
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If people think something's important, they will pay for it -- much more about personal
responsibility -- services provided by state should be provided by the market and prices set by
the market
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There should be capital mobility, can move money around the world, the money is used more
efficiently
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Monetary policy -- not fiscal policy (pump and prime), but rather about controlling interest rates
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Friedrich von Hayek and Milton Friedman disagreed with Keynes (they are neoliberal):
Neoliberalism: Common Themes
There are important actors in international relations besides states
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Importance of economic and social issues
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History is progressive (not cyclical ie. war > absence of war > war) -- the cold war ended and
there was progress
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Therefore, a better world is possible & modernization is possible and necessary
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Disagreements with Neorealists (& Realists):
Multilateralism = neoliberals argue and push for this
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Trilateralism = three powers
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Bilateralism = two powers … minimum
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Unilateralism = may be necessary (hegemon, US in case of afghanistan, push ahead regardless of
-
Cooperation is possible among states…
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