Political Science 2231E Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Private Military Company, Robert D. Putnam, Robert Keohane

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Published on 11 Dec 2014
Neoliberalism: Common Themes
Interests of the state are determined through domestic policies (two-level games) [Robert
Domestic and foreign policy are NOT distinct
Trade subsidies
Combat war -- the US' goal is to extract US troops, but still outsourcing to private
military companies
Domestic sources of power (ie. regime, economy, etc) affect the foreign policy
decisions - may constrain options
Legal obstructions; electoral sanctions -- no president since the 1950s has ever
taken the position that we should just normalize relations with Fidel Castro; media
pressure -- question of Libya & whether there was a video
Domestic constituencies that seek to change foreign policy can have difficulties:
Some would argue these are 3 level games -- we have organizations that are above and
beyond the state (IGOs, MNCs, NGOs, etc…) -- states have a 3rd level constituency to
deal with
Putnam's 2 level games:
Major focus on international institutions and how international relations is
institutionalised (has rules & practices which constrain and shape state actions )
Institutions and World Order [Robert Keohane]
Which is not a KEY idea related to Institutions? Institutionalization & Free Rider Problem
to solve various issues or problems, cooperation between states would be needed
Need to figure out how to get them to cooperate…
Get them working in areas that we can start to see some cooperation -- if that
cooperation works, it will spillover into other areas --> realize the benefits of
cooperating and integrating (o-week coat / alumni hall wedding example)
If states didn't have war, they would be able to achieve their aims through less costly
cooperative actions
Functionalist institutions? UN is set up in this way
Regimes: groups of states who work together, share an interest(s), and have particular
regulations on a particular issue or delimited area [Keohane, Krasner, Zacher]
Favours certain states --> powerful First World States
IGO develops "technocratic interests' = policies and goals for the benefit of the
Principal Agent Framework: the main states in an IGO use it to get their policy outcomes
Liberal idea of the social contract = agreements among states
Transnationalism: people & states interacting across state boundaries
Identity and Community
Formal equality = equal rights -- situation with the UN… need to look more at the level of
the state
Equality of opportunity in the global sphere, especially when it comes to trade rules -- if
Inequality and Justice
Lecture 4 - Liberalism (Continued)
10:43 AM
POLITICS 2231E Page 1
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