Political Science 2231E Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Peak Oil, Global Warming, Ecofeminism

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Green Perspectives
©Nigmendra Narain
1940s 1970s: West and East = development, industrialization regardless
of all else
1960s: Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring
1980s: sustainable development
1992: Rio Conference > Agenda 21
Current issues:
o Global warming
o Peak oil
o Natural disasters
Non-Greens:
o Realists: security
o Marxists: capitalist inequality/exploitation
o Liberals: regimes & IGOs
Greens:
o Not: problem-solving
o Ecosystems
o Holistic: Relationship between humans and nature
o Club of Rome’s Limits to Growth
Growth will face nature’s limits
Reject anthropocentrism
State & power
o ‘Green state’
o Environmentalism as a norm in global politics
o Third World states:
Lack enforcement powers
Exploit lax standards
o Contradictions: technologies, economic systems
o Decentralisation
Conflict & Violence
o Violence due to environmental changes & disasters
o Resource scarcity violence
Institutions
o Most approaches = shallow environmentalism = manageralism
o Deep environmentalism = challenge human society, production,
etc. = ecocentrism
Peace & Security
o Impact of militarism on the environment: resources, destruction
o Debt & environment
Identity & Community
o Are we part of a community that includes nature? animals?
environment?
o Eco-feminism
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