Political Science 2231E Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: North American Free Trade Agreement, World Trade Organization

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Lecture 5: International Law and Organizations
Canada is a member of more international institutions than many other countries in the world
- According to former Prime Minister Joe Clark, “no other major power has Canada‟s institutional
reach.”
- Since Canada is a member of more international organizations than any other country in the
world, this will affect you & your career prospects.
What International Institutions is Canada a Member of?
- APEC: Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation
- Arab ______ (not a member)
- ASEAN: Association of Southeast Asian Nations
- BTWC: Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention
- CD: Conference on Disarmament
- CHR: Commission on Human Rights
- CSW: Commission on the Status of Women
- CSCE: __________ on Security and Cooperation in Europe (now the OSCE, see below)
- CSD: Commission on Sustainable Development
- CW: ____________
- CWC: Chemical Weapons Convention
- EC: European Community (not a member, now the EU)
- ECM: European Common Market (not a member)
- ECOSOC: Economic and Social Council
- ECOWAS: Economic Community of West African States (not a member)
- EDC: European Defense Community (not a member)
- EFTA: European Free Trade Association (not a member)
- EU: European Union (not a member)
- FAO: Food and Agriculture Organisation
- GATT: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
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- G-7: Group of Seven
- G-8: Group of Seven + Russia (informal member)
France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the UK, US, Canada, Russia
- IAEA: International Atomic Energy Agency
- IBRD: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
- ICAO: International Civil Agency Organisation
- ICC: International Control Commission
- IJC: International Joint Commission
- ICJ: International Court of Justice (or World Court)
- ILO: International Labour Organization
- IMF: International Monetary Fund
- NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement
- NATO: North Atlantic Trade Organization
- NACC: North Atlantic Co-operation Council
- NAFO: North Atlantic Fisheries Organization
- NORAD: North American Aerospace Defence Command
- NPT: Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty
- OAS: Organization of American States
- OAU: Organization of African Unity (Canada not a member)
- OECD: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
- OSCE: Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
- PfP: Partnership for Peace
- PJBD: Permanent Joint Board on Defence
- SEATO: South-East Asia Treaty Organization (not a member)
- UN: United Nations
- UNDC: UN Disarmament Commission
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- UNDP: UN Development Program
- UNEP: UN Environmental Program
- UNFPA: UN Population Fund
- UNGA: UN General Assembly
- UNHCR: UN High Commission for Refugees
- UNICEF: UN Children‟s Fund
- UNCTAD: UN Conference on Trade and Development
- UNSC: UN Security Council (rotating membership)
- UNCLOS: United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea
- UNCTAD: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
- UNESCO: UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
- WHO: World Health Organization
- WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization
- WTO: World Trade Organization
GATT and the World Trade Organization
- GATT was signed in 1947 and then the Bretton Woods agreement was signed by Congress in
1953
- GATT was a multilateral (not bilateral) trade liberalization agreement
- GATT was characterized by a number of „rounds‟ of negotiations (e.g. Tokyo Round, Uruguay
Round)
- The GATT often resulted in cuts of tariffs, lower taxes on transactions, better trade dispute
resolution mechanisms, and improved rules of trade and investment
- the „most favored nation‟ principle prohibited GATT members from discriminating against any
GATT signatory in terms of trade. For example, the US extended MFN status to China, despite
criticisms about China‟s human rights‟ violations after Tiananmen Square.
- GATT allowed small and middle-sized countries (like Canada) to exert influence and pursue
special interests in a multilateral forum
- At the same time as the GATT rounds proceeded, Canada became increasingly reliant on US
economic markets. Canada began to negotiate bilateral trade agreements with the United States:
1966 Canada-US Autopact -introduced sectoral free trade
1971 Nixon Shock -US imposed a 10% surcharge on all imports
Mitchell Sharp‟s Third Option -tried to diversify trade with Europe
Foreign Investment Review Agency (FIRA) established in 1974
National Energy Policy (NEP ) tried to control Canadian energy policy in 1980
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