Political Science 2246E Lecture Notes - Natural Monopoly

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Lecture 1: Federalism: Control and Coordination
Control and Coordination in federalism
-Canadian governments face complex control and coordination problems
-Organizational form is a strategic choice by government of how a function will be carried out and
by whom
-A department provides the most direct political control
-Central agencies control and coordinate the other departments of government
Federalism and Administration
-Public enterprise/regulatory agencies may be preferred due to their arm’s length isolation form
accountability and Parliamentary responsibility
-Politics and comprehensive rationality are factors in the choice
-New public management
oConsidering the use of privatization
oContracting out
oPrivate Public Partnership
Federalism and the Future
-Federalism: cooperative, completive, contested, the future
-Coordination and control are important challenges for every complex organization
-Constitution distribution of powers in 1867 could not and did not anticipate challenges
oTechnology
oSocial
oEconomic
oPolitical life
Federal Provincial relations
-Relations between the federal and provincial government have passed through a number of
distinct periods since 1945:
oCooperative federalism
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oCompetitive federalism
oContested federalism
oHarpers open federalism
oFuture federalism deeper or simpler?
Cooperative federalism
-period leading up to the late 1970's
-federal government ( aka ‘the feds’ ) provided money for a broad array of programs
-Provinces developed, administered the programs more or less according to federal guidelines.
-period of Competitive Federalism followed
-Civil servants continued to deal with the complexities of hundreds of federal - provincial
programs.
Contested Federalism
-since Meech Lake (1987) and the 1992 Charlottetown Referendum federalism itself has been
under attack
-a failed attempt by Quebec sovereigntists in 1995
-premiers of nine provinces met in 1997(Québec's Lucien Bouchard was absent) in Calgary
-proposed a new framework for Canadian unity
Calgary declaration
-all provinces, while diverse, possessed equality of status
-recognized the unique character of Québec society
-including culture and tradition of civil law
-all provincial legislatures, with the exception of Québec, endorsed the declaration
The Legal Solution
-sovereignty/separation issue brought before the courts
-case launched in Québec to determine the legality of the separation of a province
-The Supreme Court of Canada held that separation, apart from the possibility of formal
constitutional amendment, was illegal under both domestic Canadian and public international law
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-the Court also recognized that if a clear majority of Quebeckers voted in favour of separation in a
referendum based on a clear question, then there was an obligation for the federal and provincial
governments to engage in negotiations in good faith on the issue of separation
Calgary and Beyond
-turmoil in Ottawa and provincial capitals across the country
-public administrators continue to toil, arranging formal conferences to discuss federal - provincial
matters and exchanging information and ideas informally on a day-to-day basis
Future federalism: deeper? Open?
-The Future:
oDeepening federalism (Martin, Layton and the cities agenda)
oOpen federalism - Simplifying federalism (Harper and Quebec)
- In summary:
olike much political conflict, federal provincial relations focus around who will pay for
programs and who will get credit for them
Federalism: The Executive and the legislature
-Parliamentary and Extra-Parliamentary Actors
-Problem of Control and Coordination
-control problem: bureaucratic power
-coordination problem:
oavoiding duplication
oinefficiency
owaste
ocounter-productive measures
Parliamentary Actors
-the executive:
oPrime Minister and Cabinet
okey decisions makers
oinitiate policy making and legislation
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