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Lecture 10: Crossing the Picket Line and Representative Bureaucracy
Crossing the Picket Line
- The Actors
o ADM Colin Hammerston
o DG Vaugh Lester
o Manager Carol Windsor
o Local Union President Casey Harrison
- The issue:
o Following your conscience
o The consequences
- The Right to Strike in essential services
- Union and management strike tactics
- Grievance procedures during a strike
- Is the extended strike in the interest of either party?
- Senior managers (left) turned away by a picket line of postal workers.
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On the Picket Line
- 1941 Ford strike pickets find a scab
- Los angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa pulld out as keynote speaker
Representative Bureaucracy
- an apparent conflict between the principle of merit and the principle of representation
- the argument for representative bureaucracy:
1. public servants exercise significant power in the political system
2. external controls are not sufficient to check bureaucratic power and ensure
responsible and accountable behaviour
3. a representative public service will be responsive to the needs and interests of the
general public
- problem: a representative bureaucracy may not be responsive, a responsive bureaucracy may
not be representative
- this is supported by some assumptions about:
- possible conflict between public service values and values of the total population
- public service values reflect the socialization received before entry (e.g. middle class values from
family, education, social class, race, etc.)
- values are not likely to be modified by exposure to bureaucratic values
- early values will then determine behaviour within the public service
- responsive behaviour through representation both in policy development and program delivery
Research on representation
- Porter: recruitment and promotion policies must be
o non-discriminatory
o educational opportunities must be equal
o motivation to enter must be equal
- Rowat: representativeness is essential in a democratic, pluralistic society and Porter's argument
has too many 'ifs‘
- Olsen's research suggests that the bureaucratic elite is more open
Represenativeness
- aim: a more proportionate representation of a limited number of politically significant but
underrepresented groups
- assumption: representation is linked to responsiveness
- side benefits: symbolic equality of opportunity and upward mobility
- representation is not an aim of corporatist society which is not concerned with pluralistic aims
- down side: representation backlash from over-represented groups
Equal opportunity- employment equity
- target groups: women, visible minorities, persons with disabilities and aboriginal peoples
- francophones are treated as a separate issue based on language which mainly effects the
federal civil service
- equal opportunity replaced by affirmative action replaced by employment equity
- June, 1983 the feds launch an accelerated program of affirmative action which effectively
includes hiring quotas and is targeted at women, aboriginal peoples and disabled persons
- in theory the merit principle is preserved
Incentives to be more representative
- Treasury Board links implementation of the program (a reminder of the importance of this part
of the policy cycle) to performance evaluations of deputy ministers
- legal basis 1977 Canadian Human Rights Act
- provisions of Section 15 of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms which protect affirmative action
programs
- September, 1985 this was expanded to include employment equity for members of visible
minority groups
- this was followed by a series of other measures including the 1986 federal Employment Equity
Act; the development of new programs and a 1994 Special Measures Initiatives Program
intended to 'retain members of designated groups'
Problems
- resistance from public servants and their unions: violates merit principles and discriminates
against other candidates
- not easy to decide which groups or interests should be represented
Canada and French Canadians
- Trudeau’s essays outlined lack of representation in federal public service
Francophones
- francophones represented during the patronage period in the federal public service
- in 1918 the Civil Service Act equated merit with English language skills and education
- by 1946 the Civil Service had lost much of its francophone component
- 1963 Glassco reports on under-representation
- 1966 Pearson announces bilingualism in the public service
- 1967 Royal Commission on bilingualism and biculturalism
- by the 90's francophones are represented proportionately although the Executive Group is the
weakest at 23%, still very close to their 24-25% range in the population
Women, Aboriginals
- Womyn also identified as a problem by Glassco
o barriers: attitudes which prevent promotion and development; a hostile corporate
culture; difficulty in balancing work and family responsibilities
o lack of pay equity
o by 1993 women had risen to only 17.6 percent of the Executive Group
- Aboriginal Peoples
o widespread discrimination compounded by cultural differences and, in some cases,
rejection of the national government
o now aboriginals are slightly overrepresented in the public service but underrepresented
in the Executive Group
Managing Diversity, Paying for it
- Managing Diversity
o a 'human resource challenge‘
o different standards for different groups
o a question of sensitivity
- Pay Equity
o equal pay for work of equal value
o goes beyond the same pay for the same job
o requires a job evaluation method
Courts Overrule Harris Anti-equity