Political Science 4426F/G Lecture Notes - Ethnic Conflict, Physical Security, Civic Nationalism

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Published on 17 Nov 2011
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Religious affiliation as an ethnic marker
oIn the case of N Ir. It is their national aspirations that pit
them against one another
Causes of Ethnic Conflict
Ethnicity does not cause conflict, but is a group marker
Ethnic conflict need not result in the use of force (Canada is a
good example of peaceful ethnic conflict)
Stepfan Wolff and Michael Brown quote from slide
oProximate causes trigger conflict –eg economic striff
oInternal elite levels- “bad” leaders
oExternal elite levels- “bad” neighbors with geopolitical
interests in getting involved in the conflict
Underlying factors of internal conflict
Structural factors and weak states
oArtificial constructs- political legitimacy, boarders, and
political institutions are problematic (Eg African boarders
drawn by European colonizers)
Where state structures weaken
Security and structural considerations
Physical security, cultural, economic, health
Extent to which groups differ culturally
The extent to which they are advantaged or disadvantaged
Intensity in past on ongoing conflict with rival groups and the
Ethnic Geography
When ethnic groups are intermingled, it becomes difficult for a
secessionist movement emerge and succeed
Political Factors
Institutionalized discrimination? (Eg, French Canadian
representation in the national government? Most PM’s from
Legitimacy of the government (China-Tibet, Sri Lanka and the
Tamils, … …
Does civic nationalism promote stability?
Conditions condusive to violence?
Wolff Quote…
Economic and Social factors
Cultural and Historical Factors – discrimination against cultural
Ethnic Outbidding- militant claims and demands by arguing that the
opponents in their own community are selling out their own interests
(Jean Charet and French Canadian interests)
Favourable economic conditions helping to alleviate conflict- Malaysia
has benefited from sustained economic growth
Being in the EU has forced countries to be much more accommodating
and accepting towards the minorities in south eastern europe