10/3/2012 3:08:00 PM
Persuade of convince the opponent.
Persons believe it is right, justified, or gain benefit through appeals to
intellect/reason, passions, self-interest, group solidarity.
Coercion= force or control
Persons believe violence or threat of violence will occur.
Authority and legitimacy
Authority: the idea that people have to accept and follow your
Respect source of command=commander has right+follower has
obligation to obey.
Natural =spontaneous (mother and child) you naturally listen and
follow their leadership. You assume they have a right to tell us what to
do and we have to abide by their rules.
Public=human agreement. (The government)
Legitimacy= obey or oblige
Makes authority possible
“Right to obey”, “duty”
Authority – legitimacy relationship; max weber
Traditional authority =inherited position of authority.
Legal authority= achieved through process and structures involving
general rules and structures involving general rules agreed/
consented/imposed upon all.
Charismatic authority =”extraordinary personal qualities” generating
authority above or beyond (sometimes without traditional or legal)
Identity and body
Power over subjectivity = our identity
Bio politics (Foucault and feminists): written in on or of the body. E.g.
war, sex, economy, psyche.
Governmentality (Foucault): self-governing, self-regulating. Capillaries of power.
Language and ideas
Common sense =naturalizing languages and ideas and limiting scope
for critical inquiry
Categories, words, knowledge‟s etc.
Patterns of belief and behavior
Social traits- attitudes about politics amongst groups.
Institutional arrangements – governments, bureaucracies.
Political culture =cultural attitudes towards politics and government
Attitudes, beliefs, values, norms about political issues and ideas.
Ideology (starting next week)
Almond and verbas three categories of political culture:
Parochial –negative view of govt. complacent.
Subject – positive view of government and low participation >
Parcipitory =positive view of government +high participation
>government will respond to demands.
Civic=combo>need some of all three to balance out a society and state=
Polarchal=agreed social values +active citizen engagement and
Fragmented=active citizen engagement BUT disagreement on basic
political rules and social values.
Collectivist=limited/no civic engagement but high agreement on the basic
rules and social values.
Materialist cultures=physical and economic security>money
Post materialist culture =emotional spiritual >self-fulfillment, freedom,
happiness, social goals.
Social capital: alexes de Tocqueville. It is a social network+ trust+
reciprocity> social development> political involvement+ positive
contributions+ rules obeyed Lecture 10-Citizenship 10/3/2012 3:08:00 PM
Many southern states= customs , traditions and language
Is Obama American , Africa, hybrid, cosmopolitan , socialist
Post 911 Europe , us, Canada – Germany deporting Turks
Racist? Nativist? Ethno centric?
Rights- based citizenship- liberal framework ; British experience
Civil rights=individual freedoms
Political rights= participate in the political power/process
Social rights= welfare rights
Active citizenship=active political agent – revolutionary states; france (
when they changed the working time. Mass riots occurred)
Passive citizenship =subject of authority- elite built state; Germany.
Private =individual /civil socity sphere- US: private dissension
Public= state/polity sphere- Greece: public protest
may emphasize non-legalistic aspects
family ties/kinship- connections to political community, eg japan
religion- contiguous with memebership in political community eg Saudi
Segregated: class ,gender, race etc.
National, racial or other quotas. We do put in limits for every single
country . we generally remove the quotas but we still limit them.
Multicultural citizenship- we have to tolerate different cultures
Cultural and group rights
Involvement of disadvantaged groups
Can we balance majority vs minority rights? Do we accommodate group rights in our individual rights framework?
Should group or individual rights trump? lecture 11: Nation 10/3/2012 3:08:00 PM
Complex concept= shared identity
Usually a broad sharing of a common history , culture, language beliefs,
sense of groups , governments- not exclusively and nor objectively
Renan: spiritual principle
Sacrifice, common experience/ past solidarity
Anderson: „imagine community‟
History, institutions, etc., create an imagined group amongst our
Civic nation: identity depends on primarily acceptance of political order.
Group of people who are part of a nation group and part of a delineated
Rarely in exists today most state are multinational=many different
nationalists on one state.
Nationalism(>political community>state=political autonomy) in Europe
merges with the fall of holy roman empire.
End of Christianity as only (sovereign)identity
Emergence of French , English, Spaniards, etc. later: Germans, Italians.
Replaces allegiance to church to allegiance with monarch and then
allegiance to people.
Nationalism was exported to non-European states:
Bi national states: two main national communities.
Multinational states: main national communities
Required construction of national identity> india and Pakistan
Demands for ending political colonialism> political autonomy
Required construction of national identity>removal of
„foreigners‟=colonizers, indentured imported populations, etc.
Sovereign control of domestic politics and political structure. lecture 12 Oct 24 concepts- Cultural Pluralism and
Ethnically homogenous states= one ethno-cultural group(10%)
Definition of a cultural pluralist society: coexistence of many cultures,
ethnicities, etc., in a political community.
Vs dominant conformity: cultures are expected to conform to the
dominant culture. Eg dominant culture in Canada is white Anglo-Saxon
Dominant conformity in any culture would include religion gender
States but multi-nation states
state=political entity- Canada
nation= political identity- Canadian
conflict between two goes back millennia- civilizations , not just
„nation‟ as hatred, also known as the „other‟. E.g. Canada as a nation
would look at the us as the other.
Genocide- the killing of a race or a group.
Ethnic cleansing- killing, raping of a particular ethnic group .
Clash of civilization- 1990‟s: Samuel Huntington: Christianity vs.
Islam. He argues that since the 1991 there will be a clash .
between civilizations. That Muslims and Christians will fight and
create conflicts between each other. He uses the 9/11 as an
o He mobilized that into a phobia called xenophobia- fear of
He says that the US is white , Christian, democratic and English.
He says that cultural pluralism will NOT work. His argument is that we
don‟t want to have differences, we want to have similarities.
Identifies and characterizes the population- makes the nation
evident as a group of people .
The world is divided into nations – 3000+ nations globally
Institutions and rules- the type of government we want , justice,
society and economy.
Self determination- the right to govern your own people or like
people. Diaspora (dispersion of anyone from their original homeland)
Dislocation- involuntary and voluntary (Palestine)
Narrative about a homeland- immigrant story . nostalgia , also a
Political claims about a homeland- support ,security, government
Biological-nature. Race is unchanging . we are a certain race
therefore cant change.
Social –nurture. Race is a result of nurture tendency. E.g. if you
grow up in a posh part of Canada and you‟re into rap and
become a rapper.
Racialization- using race categories for political , social and economic
relations of superiority and dominance.
Racism- systematic use of racialization in a system; marginalization of
„Canadian‟ invention- Canada‟s diversity
Equity policies stress: fairness policies; gender, race, ethnicity
o Some argue that its not a good plan because it ghettoizes