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Political science oct 3 night lecture notes.docx

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Political Science
Political Science 1020E
Nigmendra Narain

10/3/2012 3:08:00 PM Political science: Continuing  Influence:  Persuade of convince the opponent.  Emotion=supportive  Persons believe it is right, justified, or gain benefit through appeals to intellect/reason, passions, self-interest, group solidarity.  Coercion= force or control  Emotion=fear  Persons believe violence or threat of violence will occur. Authority and legitimacy  Authority: the idea that people have to accept and follow your leadership  Respect source of command=commander has right+follower has obligation to obey.  Natural =spontaneous (mother and child) you naturally listen and follow their leadership. You assume they have a right to tell us what to do and we have to abide by their rules.  Public=human agreement. (The government)  Legitimacy= obey or oblige  Followership  Makes authority possible “Right to obey”, “duty”  Authority – legitimacy relationship; max weber  Traditional authority =inherited position of authority.  Legal authority= achieved through process and structures involving general rules and structures involving general rules agreed/ consented/imposed upon all.  Charismatic authority =”extraordinary personal qualities” generating authority above or beyond (sometimes without traditional or legal) Identity and body  Power over subjectivity = our identity  Bio politics (Foucault and feminists): written in on or of the body. E.g. war, sex, economy, psyche.  Governmentality (Foucault): self-governing, self-regulating.  Capillaries of power.  Language and ideas  Common sense =naturalizing languages and ideas and limiting scope for critical inquiry  Categories, words, knowledge‟s etc. Culture: Patterns of belief and behavior Social traits- attitudes about politics amongst groups. Institutional arrangements – governments, bureaucracies. Political culture =cultural attitudes towards politics and government Attitudes, beliefs, values, norms about political issues and ideas. Ideology (starting next week) Almond and verbas three categories of political culture: Parochial –negative view of govt. complacent. Subject – positive view of government and low participation > authoritarian/deferential. Parcipitory =positive view of government +high participation >government will respond to demands. Civic=combo>need some of all three to balance out a society and state= order. Polarchal=agreed social values +active citizen engagement and government efficacy Fragmented=active citizen engagement BUT disagreement on basic political rules and social values. Collectivist=limited/no civic engagement but high agreement on the basic rules and social values. Inglehart Materialist cultures=physical and economic security>money Post materialist culture =emotional spiritual >self-fulfillment, freedom, happiness, social goals. Social capital: alexes de Tocqueville. It is a social network+ trust+ reciprocity> social development> political involvement+ positive contributions+ rules obeyed Lecture 10-Citizenship 10/3/2012 3:08:00 PM How?  By identity?  Many southern states= customs , traditions and language  Is Obama American , Africa, hybrid, cosmopolitan , socialist  Post 911 Europe , us, Canada – Germany deporting Turks  Nations, nationalism  Racist? Nativist? Ethno centric? T.H Marshall  Rights- based citizenship- liberal framework ; British experience  Civil rights=individual freedoms  Political rights= participate in the political power/process  Social rights= welfare rights Turner  Active citizenship=active political agent – revolutionary states; france ( when they changed the working time. Mass riots occurred)  Passive citizenship =subject of authority- elite built state; Germany.  Private =individual /civil socity sphere- US: private dissension  Public= state/polity sphere- Greece: public protest Non western  may emphasize non-legalistic aspects  family ties/kinship- connections to political community, eg japan  religion- contiguous with memebership in political community eg Saudi Arabia. Limits  Segregated: class ,gender, race etc.  National, racial or other quotas. We do put in limits for every single country . we generally remove the quotas but we still limit them.  Multicultural citizenship- we have to tolerate different cultures  Differentiated –citizenship  Cultural and group rights  Involvement of disadvantaged groups Challenge  Can we balance majority vs minority rights?  Do we accommodate group rights in our individual rights framework?  Should group or individual rights trump? lecture 11: Nation 10/3/2012 3:08:00 PM Nation Complex concept= shared identity Usually a broad sharing of a common history , culture, language beliefs, sense of groups , governments- not exclusively and nor objectively Renan: spiritual principle Sacrifice, common experience/ past solidarity Anderson: „imagine community‟ History, institutions, etc., create an imagined group amongst our collective memory Civic nation: identity depends on primarily acceptance of political order. Nation state Participatory association‟ Group of people who are part of a nation group and part of a delineated state Rarely in exists today most state are multinational=many different nationalists on one state. Nationalism(>political community>state=political autonomy) in Europe merges with the fall of holy roman empire. End of Christianity as only (sovereign)identity Emergence of French , English, Spaniards, etc. later: Germans, Italians. Replaces allegiance to church to allegiance with monarch and then allegiance to people. Nationalism was exported to non-European states: Bi national states: two main national communities. Multinational states: main national communities Required construction of national identity> india and Pakistan Demands for ending political colonialism> political autonomy Required construction of national identity>removal of „foreigners‟=colonizers, indentured imported populations, etc. Sovereign control of domestic politics and political structure. lecture 12 Oct 24 concepts- Cultural Pluralism and Multiculturalism Cultural pluralism  Ethnically homogenous states= one ethno-cultural group(10%)  Definition of a cultural pluralist society: coexistence of many cultures, ethnicities, etc., in a political community.  Vs dominant conformity: cultures are expected to conform to the dominant culture. Eg dominant culture in Canada is white Anglo-Saxon protestant .  Dominant conformity in any culture would include religion gender sexuality.  States but multi-nation states  state=political entity- Canada  nation= political identity- Canadian  conflict between two goes back millennia- civilizations , not just states  „nation‟ as hatred, also known as the „other‟. E.g. Canada as a nation would look at the us as the other.  Genocide- the killing of a race or a group.  Ethnic cleansing- killing, raping of a particular ethnic group .  Clash of civilization- 1990‟s: Samuel Huntington: Christianity vs. Islam. He argues that since the 1991 there will be a clash . between civilizations. That Muslims and Christians will fight and create conflicts between each other. He uses the 9/11 as an example. o He mobilized that into a phobia called xenophobia- fear of foreigners He says that the US is white , Christian, democratic and English. He says that cultural pluralism will NOT work. His argument is that we don‟t want to have differences, we want to have similarities.  Nationalism  Identifies and characterizes the population- makes the nation evident as a group of people .  The world is divided into nations – 3000+ nations globally  Institutions and rules- the type of government we want , justice, society and economy.  Self determination- the right to govern your own people or like people.  Diaspora (dispersion of anyone from their original homeland)  Dislocation- involuntary and voluntary (Palestine)  Narrative about a homeland- immigrant story . nostalgia , also a social story.  Political claims about a homeland- support ,security, government systems, etc. Multiculturalism  Race  Biological-nature. Race is unchanging . we are a certain race therefore cant change.  Social –nurture. Race is a result of nurture tendency. E.g. if you grow up in a posh part of Canada and you‟re into rap and become a rapper.  Racialization- using race categories for political , social and economic relations of superiority and dominance.  Racism- systematic use of racialization in a system; marginalization of lesser races.  Multiculturalism  „Canadian‟ invention- Canada‟s diversity  Equity policies stress: fairness policies; gender, race, ethnicity o Some argue that its not a good plan because it ghettoizes
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