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Political Science
Political Science 1020E
Charles Jones

Comparative Politics: Public Management ©Nigmendra Narain Bureaucracy  Definition o Underpins and does the work of executive o Permanent salaried officials o Employed in the central government departments  Continuity of governance (if executive changes) o Advise on and administer government policy  European predecessor: royal household staff  Weber o Drawing on Chinese thinker Confucius o Division of tasks – efficiency, specialization o Authority: impersonal & rules-driven – apply the rules o Recruitment – merit, expertise o Secure jobs – discourage political abuse o Merit and promotion o Disciplined hierarchy  Two approaches: o Spoils system – patronage to supporters – reward for loyalty (back the candidate, get the job) o Merit system – competitive exams = merit = recruited – reward for achievements o Today: mix of both?  Top and advisory layers in bureaucracy = government appointees  political  Most/core layers in bureaucracy = merit system  bureaucracy Recruitment  Unified bureaucracy = into the whole civil service, e.g. Britain o General skill set o Move through different ministries o Intelligence, education, experience = judgement and decisions o Britain: recruit into a ministry > move Page 1 of 3 (c) Nigmendra Narain, Political Science, UWO o France: recruit into the civil service > placements o Experts; not important to central part of system, instead act as advisors  Department bureaucracy = into a specific department or job, e.g. Germany o Usually some specific expertise for specific jobs o Similar job in different ministries or private sector o German and Japanese = law training + expertise  Should bureaucracies be representative of their wider population o Affirmative action – overcome legacies of past discrimination in hiring o Positive discrimination – lower recruitment standards for disadvantaged groups Organization  Departments o Complete the tasks of government o Stable core of central government o Hierarchical: minister > senior civil servants > bureaucrats  Divisions o Operating units within Departments o Focus on an aspect of the Depar
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