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International Law and Peace Keeping.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course Code
Political Science 1020E
Professor
Nig

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International Law and Peace Keeping The UN:  Designed as a collective security system  UN was unable to perform its collective security functions because of the disagreement between the US and the SU in the security council.  Korean anomaly=only example of UN collective security action  1948- 2008: 63 peacekeeping operations Origin of UN peacekeeping: observer and true supervision missions Established observation mission in  1947 during Greek civil war,  1948 after Arab-Israeli war,  in 1949 after war between India and Pakistan The UN Emergency Force--The Suez Crisis Traditional Peacekeeping:  Impartiality: No sides should be favoured by UN  Nonhostile and lightly armed personnel: UN peacekeepers were unarmed or lightly armed for self-defence only  Consent: consent of the parties for UN force to be dispatched and to remain  Keep, but don’t make, the peace: had to have a peace to keep  Military Personnel: UN operations were carried out primarily by individuals with military status  Proper authorization: generally under authorization of Security Council, although some earlier cases were authorized by the GA  Nonterritoriality: Peacekeepers patrolled a zone that had been negotiated by parties to a dispute UN peacekeepers: Nobel Peace Prize in 1988 Character of peacekeeping operations began to change by 1990-91 because:  Domination of intrastate conflicts  Security Council was more capable of reaching agreements on the creation of peacekeeping forces due to the ending of the cold war  Optimism for UN to act as an instrument for international peace—reflected in An Agenda for Peace, by Secretary-General Boutrous Boutros-Ghali in 1992 As a result:  1988=5 missions  1994=17 missions Intrastate peacekeeping in comparison to traditional peacekeeping:  Increased Size  Deployed within states  Lack of consent  Operation in hostile environments  Increased use of force  Proliferation of mission tasks—wider range of mission tasks: electoral support or management, policy reform etc  Peace building and national reconstruction: Security is increasingly understood to involve social, economic, environmental and cultural aspects far beyond its traditional military dimensions Failures:  Yugoslavia: mixed experience –succeeded in delivering humanitarian relief to the civilian, failed to end hostilities in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Dayton agreement in 1995 with the interventio
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