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International security after the Cold War.docx

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Political Science
Political Science 1020E

International security after the Cold War Security: freedoms from threats or dangers Traditionally international security  Security of a states 1) Thus security is most frequently conceptualized as the security of a state from external threats to its territorial integrity 2) Political independence 3) general way of life  Military threats  Revolutionary movements  Secessionist movements  Terrorist groups  However, this rather restrictive view of security has been challenged in recent decades 1) Theoretical schools that do not accept a state-centric interpretation of global politics 2) Changes in the structure of the international system itself  As a result, it includes a range of threats that are 1) Non-state centric 2) Military in nature 3) E.g.  environmental degradation  Cultural influences  Modernization  Economic integration  Migration of peoples  Actors and forces other than state 1) Certain ideologies 2) Individuals 3) Groups 4) Socioeconomic conditions within or across state boundaries  State will go to war and threaten the security of individuals or groups 1) Use of police force 2) Discriminatory legislation 3) Economic policies  Constructivist: 1) securitization theory 2) emphasizing that security is not an objective term 3) constructed through social processes  Issues occupying international security analysts after the Cold War 1) The origins and causes of conflict in international system 2) National security 3) Group security 4) Nuclear weapons safety and nuclear weapons proliferation 5) Chemical and biological weapons proliferation 6) The spread of conventional weapons 7) Terrorism 8) Global criminal activity 9) Human security 10) Regional security studies 11) Environmental security War in contemporary global politics  Period of armed hostilities 1) within or between states 2) other collectives  ethnic groups  political factions  John Keegan: collective killing for a collective purpose  1500-1989=589 wars=141,901,000 deaths  1945-2006 1) 232 armed conflicts 2) No wars between great powers, but they were involved in wars 3) Between smaller countries in  Middle East  Asia  Africa  Increase of wars between states—Intrastate wars 1) 89/122 intrastate conflicts between 1989-2006  2006—32 armed conflicts in the world, down from 52 in 1991-1992  Civilians causalities from WWI 13%--WWII 60%--post-1945 conflicts 90% End of the Cold War  Decline in global military spending  Since 1998 world military spending has steadily increased  2007, world military expenditures totalled over US 1.3 trillion, 2.5% GDP, $202 per person on the planet 1) Due to 9/11 2) 2001-2007 increased by 59% 3) US accounted for 45% of world military expenditures in 2007 4) US, Japan, UK, France, China account for 65% Theorizing the Origins of war  Every war has unique and multifaceted causes  Quincy Wright: A war in reality, results from a total situation involving ultimat
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