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Political Theorist Review-Poli Sci 2237E.pdf

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Department
Political Science
Course Code
Political Science 1020E
Professor
Nigmendra Narain

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Thomas Hobbes -english, his philosophies are products of the civil war in England -Leviathan, social contract theory ▯ -absolutism of the sovereign ▯ -brought forth much european liberal thoughts ▯ ▯ -natural equality of all men ▯ ▯ -right of the individual ▯ ▯ -artificial character of political order (distinction between civil society and ▯ ▯ state) ▯ ▯ -political powers must be representative, chosen by people ▯ ▯ -free interpretation of the law allowing people to work around the most ▯ ▯ stringent laws -humans are matter and motion and are distributed amongst other things matter and motion -human nature is a self-interested corporation -society based on a “social contract” -mother gave birth when she heard of coming spanish armada “my mother gave birth to twins: myself and fear” -Puritan influences from school -distinguished the realm of man from the realm of nature -talked on the oneness of movements, how all movements are related to one another -man’s movement into society -avoid brutishness and misery -separated man, body and the state -the state is a monster, an entity created out of necessity for cooperation between humans and dissolved due to civil strife proceeding from human passions -work so secular and so revolutionary that Hobbes needed to appeal to the revolutionary government to avoid being killed by French catholics and English royalists -Leviathan ▯ -concerns itself with the formation of states and the originates social contract ▯ theory ▯ -written during English civil war, much is said of the importance of a central ▯ power authority to stabilize conflicts and avoid civil war again ▯ -what would life be like without the governments, in a state of nature ▯ -each person has a right, or license, to everything in the world ▯ -leads to perpetual fear and conflict ▯ -”war of all against all”, every man is evil because he does not know virtue ▯ -would be no industry, because the fruits of industry are always uncertain (thus ▯ no navigation, no imports, no letters, no books, nothing that helps with human ▯ movements, no CONCEPT OF TIME ▯ -continual fear and danger of a violent death ▯ -life in the state of nature is solitary, nasty, brutish and short ▯ -argues for a social contract and absolute power by a sovereign ▯ -the cover, made up of over 300 men forming a massive sovereign, with ▯ ▯ reflections on both sides signifying the union between church and state, military ▯ and spiritualism, religious courts and the battlefield. sovereign and state must be ▯ both secular and spiritual ▯ -unsentimental thoughts on the body, everything can be explained ▯ materialistically ▯ -good and evil are simply desires and appetites which are simply wants to move ▯ towards or away from objects ▯ -greatest good cannot exist, it is superfluous AND given the differences in ▯ desires, cannot possibly be had ▯ -a society driven by the greater good would have conflicting accounts of “good” ▯ and would thus have civil war ▯ -the greatest EVIL is fear of death, and so a political community can be based on ▯ this because it is the greatest fear of all ▯ -even though, in a state of nature, no one may have an intention to attack ▯ (because of the scarcity of goods) you or your family, you must constantly be on ▯ guard AND it is easy to justify preemptive attacks ▯ -the fear of death forms the “laws of nature”, although Hobbes says they are not ▯ laws as without a sovereign they are unenforceable ▯ -seek peace, but where peace cannot be had, seek to use all advantages of war ▯ -nothing is just or unjust, every man must be able to claim everyTHING to his n w ▯ o ▯ -second law is that every man should, as long as others do as well, abandon the ▯ state of nature and adopt a commonwealth to diversify goods and lead the e l p o e ▯ p -men naturally seek dominion over others and seek liberty, so commonwealth is the end game -tied to fear of punishment but still preferable to a “war of all against all” -in order to promote order, censorship by the sovereign and restrictions on the right to free speech are justifiable -the separation of powers is REALLY, REALLY bad -there are three types of government: monarchy, democracy, aristocracy -there are three types of bad government: tyranny, anarchy and oligarchy, but when a new government is desired, a new FORM is not desired, but rather a new makeup -the difference between them is not power, because the reason for all of them is absolute power. Rather, the difference is the effectiveness of ruling -monarchy is the best form of government because it is a single man and he aims to preserve himself as each individual in the public do. Thus he is most closely related to the public. The private is more connected because they both aim to advance the same interests -first born son should succeed the throne, for he has been raised properly to lead -the sovereign has the right to decide on the religious faith of the population, or else there is religious factionism and separation of the population, leading to conflict (Hobbes says he would forgo his religious if it meant adopting the faith of the sovereign) -equal taxation is good, but not based on wealth, rather based on the debt owed to the state for its protection of the people and for the rule of law -public funds for those who could not work, including creation of jobs for those who are physically incapable (doing navigation and shit) -we cannot infallibly say that someone who claims divine revelation is NOT lying, and so the sovereign’s word is the highest word in a state -because miracles have stopped, and the former prophets committed miracles, we cannot believe anything except the books of the bible, and the highest order is the civil order -civil power must be the highest power (the people of Israel follow the ten commandments but have no authority and so it must have been civil) -compares ignorance to darkness, and says the greatest darkness is ignorance due to misinterpretation of the scriptures -one misinterpretation is that the kingdom of god is the church -demonology (due to poems and shit of those themes) is NOT good for true knowledge because they are constructs of the mind -church and churchmen benefit from the talk of demons and not the civil authority, and this gives too much power to the church John Locke -father of classical liberalism -english, most influential of the enlightenment thinkers -considered to be one of the first british empiricists and he did lengthy work on the social contract theory -defined the self through a continuity of consciousness -we are born without innate ideas and we gain knowledge from sensory perception -Locke launched liberalism by slightly tempering with the Hobbesian theory on politics, specifically s
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