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State; Hegel-Marx.doc

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Political Science
Political Science 1020E
Bruce Morrison

HEGEL AND THE STATE •Locke has a more positivist view on the SON - not nearly as damaging as Hobbes' one. And the reason for Locke we move into a civil society is the protection of property •the SON is mental construct to help us see why all individuals move to contract together into civil society •Hobbes believes in primary rights and these are self protection and civil rights •Locke has been attached to an understanding of a SON in which people feel to some degree secure and that they can protect their property •limited government rather than a leviathan for Locke - abstract version of consenting in Lockes view, people desire dictatorial rule and see the necessity of very strong rule Hobbes thinks, Locke believes in a more limited version of government •Locke the state of nature is not so nasty brutish and short not is the concession of power on the part of individuals is as complete as it is with Hobbes •enforcement of constitutionality for Locke •Rousseau thinks the SON was a period of purity and that civilization ruined this purity - the discovery of property was the creation of civilization and the corruption of human kind •property - civilization these are the corruption of the prior purity of the individual- construct of the noble savage •people engage in public meeting as individuals to construct the general will through the concept of a social contract - the point of the social contract is to resolve a problem to deal with the problem of how we reconcile individual liberty with community and society so long with the needs of everyone •Rousseau like Hegal derive from an aristotle to provide opportunity for self fulfillment through the act of contracting so that we can have both our general will and society will, folding our individual will into the general will •contracting creates new people, community or a nation •through this process the general will, the foundation for the community, some people believe that some think this will lead to dictatorship by forcing people to be free, but rousseau thinks that the general will is the reflection of the individual will to enable them to extend far beyond what they can do on their own in self fulfillment •the individual needs society and has participating in the constructing of the general will, people ddraw crucially from society, the direction society acquires is generated by a community contracting to be governed by a set of rules that they themselves have generated HEGEL •Hegel wants to abandon Lockes analysis faster than he will do to Rousseau •Locke the purpose of the state is to maintain property rights and manage relations amongst people pursuing opportunities, extension of civil society exists only to serve •Hegel believes the state or SON are inadeuqate left to their own devices, the inadequacy of the SON •we get in trouble when left to our own devices, when we're left to our own devices we cannot perform as well as we could within the state •Hegel dissatisfied with the degradation of the state to civil society, dependent on this distinction •Hegel is one of the crucial forerunners of civil society, Hegel is not about authoritarianism, maintains the distinction between CS and the state but dissatisfied with the idea that the state is only because of the SON or CS •Hegel says his concept of freedom is better than that of liberals freedom is not just doing whatever you want, but freedom is plugging into what is rational, relationship to Rousseau here •to be fully free, we need to be part of a collectivity, we define ourselves through our relationships with other people •claiming that freedom exists in its fullest sense when the state is fully developed as a complete expression of truth of the ethical idea of spirit and when individuals in society freely come to accept it as reasonable - this is the subjective element - the state can express in the fullest possible way the broad interest of all humanity - harmony of ethical perspectives •people are fully free when the state offers this opportunity and they choose to participate not just in the competition of wills but in the rubric of the ethical ideal • Hegel's approach to idealism is genealogical, historical the gradual development over time the family is the beginning of the trajectory of the ethical ideal - for caring • for children, relationships of affection and it ends up getting enfolded in the ethical development of the state • the key is the CS is profoundly inadequate and when CS becomes established as a broader political order and not treated as an end in itself, and realize the pursuit of these aims are limited and unsatisfactory the state is a developmental thing, it evolves over time and over history • gets better - interdependence of markets in the international marketplace • the state is not dependent on CS thoroughly inclined to reject the idea of contracting by fully free individuals • "the real is the rational, the rational is the real" - the be real and rational you need to understand your own subjectivity - at the end of history you reach the subjectivity of the objectivity - theres a process of real and rational individuals • the real is always a pale reflection of the forms, for Hegel the rational emerges from the real and they are married through the cultivation of the historical state •argued for a con
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