Class Notes (834,986)
Canada (508,846)


5 Pages
Unlock Document

Political Science
Political Science 1020E
Charles Jones

3Politics 1020 November 1, 2012 Conservatism According to Jones’ lecture, Smith argues that capitalism: a) Will lead to the disappearance of states b) Benefits the worst off c) Promotes disorder d) Fosters dependency 19 Century Utilitarianism - Jeremy Bentham o Laissez-faire  Leaving people alone to find out how to promote their own happiness o Neoclassical liberal perspective o Expanding voting rights - John Stuart Mill o Threat of public opinion o Tyranny of the majority o From laissez-faire to socialism o Thought that socialist arrangements was the best way to promote individual freedom of action Herbert Spencer 1820 – 1903 - Social evolution o Believes that society has been and will continue to evolve - Absolute property rights o Individual freedom means that each of us should possess certain rights that shouldn’t be constrained in any way by the state - Ineffectiveness and corruption of welfare programs - Survival of the fittest Spencer on Distributive Justice - Those who succeed in the free economy deserve to survive - Why no state’s aid to the poor? o They are unfit to survive o Society is too complex to be controlled in the way government want o Shouldn’t override property rights - Promoting individual freedom but state should be minimalistic T.H. Green 1836 – 1882 - Welfare liberal - Government can be a positive force for promoting individualism and ensuring equal opportunity Green’s Welfare Liberalism: 1 - Government is not merely a necessarily evil - The state can advance individual liberty by promoting equal opportunities for all Green’s Welfare Liberalism: 2 - Two concepts of freedom o Negative freedom: absence of restraint  I am free when no one is preventing me from doing what I want to do o Positive freedom: actual ability to do something worth doing  Have to actually be able to do it, otherwise you are not free  Has to be worth doing, otherwise you are not free  You have to do it with others, otherwise you are not free Green’s Welfare Liberalism: 3 - Main obstacles to freedom: poverty, ignorance, prejudice, sickness - Government can promote freedom through poor relief, public schools, hospitals, and regulation of working conditions Liberal Justice - Rawls: equal basic liberties - Fair equality of opportunity - Income and wealth inequalities only if they benefit the worst off - Nozick: minimal state – a rights protecting agency permitting capitalist acts between consenting adults Nozick on Good Lives - Each of us has our own conception of the good human life o Utopia and anarchy state - State should allow individuals to design their own lives - Liberal society would be best Rights, Liberties and Toleration - Emphasis on civil and political rights o Right to vote o Freedom of opinion o Security of a person - Protections for basic liberations of conscience, speech, association, occupation and sexuality - Toleration: separation of the church and the state Neutrality, Pluralism and Capitalism - State is neutral between conceptions of the good o Liberal neutrality - Permanent pluralism of modern society - Pro-capitalism and anti-capitalism Why Individual Freedom? - State coercion and paternalism are counter productive - Showing respect for autonomy and our own capacity to make our own choices - Peaceful coexistence (toleration) versus respect for autonomy o The most important value is the capacity for an individual to protect and make their own choices Conservatism in General: 1 - Traditionalism o Conservative wants to conserve the tradition o Continue doing things they have been done o We should be suspicious of radical change o Support the status quo o Not necessarily someone that says all change is bad, only radical - Skepticism about political knowledge o What we know derives from what we have inherited o Wisdom of the tradition - Organic conception of society and the state o Society and the state are like a large organism o We are part of something larger Conservatism in General: 2 - Classical conservatives: flawed human beings, hierarchy, tradition, anti revolution o There are important flaws in human nature that we need to recognize - Modern conservatives: small government, free markets, strong military Conservatism in General: 3 - Conservatives vs liberals - Liberals: for rational justification and transpa
More Less

Related notes for Political Science 1020E

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.