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Western University
Political Science
Political Science 1020E
Charles Jones

Politics 1020 November 8, 2012 Socialism Socialism in General: 1 - Basic goods should be produced with the aim of benefitting all - Property should be owned by society - Against capitalism and its unequal distribution in power Socialism in General: 2 - Industrial revolution led to dangerous, difficult, undignified factory work - Moral objections to exploitation, poverty and greed - Scientific claims about historical change and the end of capitalism Freeden: Core Socialist Ideas 1. Group class as basic social unit a. Economic class 2. Equality: remove hierarchy, redistribute based on need 3. Labour and productive activity makes us who we are 4. Ideal of welfare or flourishing: end poverty, promote free participation 5. History is going somewhere and we can help it get there Early Socialism: Thomas More 1478 – 1535 - Communal ownership - Abolish money and private property o No more pride, greed and envy - Conflict and inequality are unnatural Early Socialism: Saint-Simon 1760 – 1825 - Class based historical stages o We can identify the main features of what is happening in the world o Feudalism (nobles, peasants, lords) o Capitalism (owners, workers) - Belief based economic systems - Replace capitalist inefficiency and waste with expert planning - Get rid of government and replace with administrations Early Socialism: Robert Owen 1771 – 1858 - Bad conduct stems from a corrupt social system o People break the law and steal things o Where does this bad conduct come from? o Society made me do it - Capitalism rewards greed and selfishness - Produce cooperatively for the public Karl Marx 1818 – 1883 - German philosopher - Born in Prussia - Drinking, duelling, law, philosophy - Radical journalism: Paris, Brussels - 1849 to 1883, temporary exile in London - Political agitation - Communist manifesto o Part of revolutionary socialism that became his main activity - Family and poverty - Scholarly research - Main activity was explaining the origins of capitalism, how it developed, and how it would eventually come to an end Themes in Marx - Religion - Alienation - History - Economics - Human nature Religion - G.W.F. Hegel - History as the development of spirit o Development of the mind of God o God comes to self awareness - Understand that we experience the world as alien o We don’t understand what it really is - Ludwig Feuerbach o We create God in our own image o The secret of anthropology is theology o We alienate our human capacities for knowledge, power and goodness - Religion was created in response to poverty and suffering - Religion is the opium of the people o Produces euphoria (a buzz, painkiller) o Can render you incapable of flourishing o We need to remove the cause of religion o The cause of religion is alienated labour Alienation: 1 - Human essence detached from human existence - Two things that belong together that have come apart - We are creative producers whose work is punishing, degrading, commodified -
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