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Political Science
Political Science 1020E
Charles Jones

State of Nature: Locke and Rousseau Sep 19 John Nash vs. Adam Smith  Smith: individual ambition serves the common good  Nash: no… the best result comes from everyone doing what’s best for himself and the group o individual rationality vs. collective rationality o Nash equilibrium: the strategy best for someone is what is best depending on what everyone else is doing  relates to Hobbes’ view on state of nature LOCKE State of Nature is…  a state of peace  a condition of equality o no one has any natural right over another o immoral to claim right over other people  characterized by one fundamental Law of Nature: everyone should be preserved as much as may be o we have the duty to not harm other people o we have the duty to help those who are being harmed  Natural Liberty: “liberty is not licensed”— you are not free to do whatever you like, what you don’t have the right to do (look at the Law of Nature for your rights) Locke vs. Hobbes  Hobbes: equality— equally able  Locke: equality— moral equality  Hobbes: Law of Nature— don’t do to others what you don’t want done to yourself  Locke: Law of Nature— everyone should be preserved as much as may be  Hobbes: Natural Liberty— you can do whatever you want in order to survive  Locke: Natural Liberty— what you are free to do, limited by your rights Enforcing the Law of Nature (Locke)  everyone should be preserved o God’s law… He would not create something in vain— needs someone to enforce the Law of Nature o there must be an Executive Power to enforce Law of Nature  includes the right to punish Scarcity or Abundance?  Hobbes: natural scarcity and conflict o no one would produce things because someone else would take it  Locke: natural abundance of land o we have rights to private property/land because there is a lot of land, no reaso
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