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Polisci 1020E- Socialism, Part II.docx

4 Pages

Political Science
Course Code
Political Science 1020E
Charles Jones

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MARX ON EXPLOITATION, THE STATE, AND HUMAN NATURE  theory of surplus value  central idea: workers are sacrificed for the interest of capital Exploitation  exploitation is the extraction of surplus labor o the source of profit which makes the world go round o capitalist makes profit by…  how does the capitalist make profit? o distinction between labor and labor power o purchases labor power of worker (at market value) and receives the labor of the worker o the labor value is more than the cost of the labor power: surplus value Capitalist profit is the surplus value created by workers. Class Struggle  history is the history of class struggle  conflicts of interest are linked to our relationship to the means of production o politics is mostly about resolving conflict— for Marx, it‟s class conflict, and only class conflict  the state exists to deal with conflicts of interest generated by coercive surplus extraction o to promote interests of those who control the means of production o this calls for revolution Marx‟s Two Accounts of the State 1. A committee for managing the common interests of the Bourgeoisie o based on 19 thcentury British politics o dominant economic class (Bourgeoisie) uses the state to promote their interests o problem: Marx thought that revolution would come because of exploitation, but it did not— 2. The State as an independent actor th o based on 19 century French and German politics o identifies range of subgroups: peasants, captains of industries, radical petty bourgeoisie (small artisans, watch- makers…) o the State came to have its own interests On Revolution  revolution is likely in States that fail to integrate their excluded classes  Bismarck‟s strategy: buy off working class and maintain a loyal army o a conservative o introduce a welfare state  universal suffrage could lead to election of a socialist government o normal bourgeoisie state is a democracy: eventually suffrage would lead to socialism On Human Nature  universality: overcoming divisions o things that divide us are less important things that bring us together o after the revolution, we will become universal beings and divisions will disappear o workers across the world will introduce a new economic system o objection: particularity if permanent  human beings are creative producers o objection: labour is not our essence SOCIALISM AFTER MARX Engels  creator of official Marxism after Marx‟s death in 1883  exposed poverty and criticized subordination of women  materialism and „scientific socialism‟ o Marx‟s materialism: humans organize themselves in a specific way in order to produce material lives, which influences how they think o Engel‟s materialism: reductionist, Hobbesian o Engel‟s „scientific socialism‟: true socialism sees proletariat as revolutionary force Iron law: socialism is com
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