Lecture One: Political Science 12/17/2013
What is Politics
A struggle of resources and its use.
Study of the Government
Study of Power and effects
General Population thinks: Individuals and Institutions; What politicians do, what presidents do.
Politics – Greek word Polis (means ‘city’)
The study of politics is considered with Social activities and Decisions which takes place in human communities, cities and
What makes activities and decisions social? When a decision as a direct or indirect impact on others.
Politicians are basically law makers.
The Study of the Government
Decisions made by the government affect us all
Different opinions, goals and desires of all, creates Conflict
Conflict (Violent/NonViolent): Government needed to resoConflict
3 Levels of Government
Laws are created because they address conflicts that exist so they don’t keep happening. Laws shape and affect the lives of
Decisions Politicians face: Money expenditure, war laws, health care. Politics as a Study of Power
Who has the power, who does it benefit, what are he consequences
Laswell “The study of who gets what, when, why, and where”
Robert Dahl “Power is a Deliberate attempt to get someone to do something that they wouldn’t do otherwise.’
Laws can’t control and individual, but have an effect.
How the government keeps their power:
Power: Found everywhere. Implemented to control the behaviour of others.
Power is also about having the ability to make something look natural or true.
Television and film helps circulate and shape opinions to the general population. Perception.
Stereotypes from the media.
Why do we have stereotypes: control others, see them as inferior.
Example: Arabs are seen as evil.
Politics as Struggle of Our Resources and Their Use
Material Resources Roads: Rivers, Fish (Physical)
NonMaterial Resources: Time, Influence, Status (Intangible)
Resources often limited, there is a struggle over them due to that.
Struggle over land: Struggle creates conflict.
Political Struggles happen over resources:
Minor Levels Boss vs Employee: Dispute over time
Money Allocation in an organization
Paying taxes (Resource is money)
Racially (Vietnam war, conscripted based on race) (Nonmaterial resource)
What is Political Science?
Branch of Philosophy; Normative questions of what should exist: What we should strive for.
Scientific Method: Only study what we can see.
Normative questions about aspirations.
Empiricism: idea that experiences the basis of knowledge; observation and experimentation. Key themes of enlightenment:
Mid 1700’s in western Europe; ideas, start reason , instead of focus and act based oreligion andbelief. Empiricism
because knowledge and observation lead to truth.
Democracy: group of people making large decisions on how we live.
Normative Approach: Democracy. Lecture 2: The State 12/17/2013
Give us characteristics and provide clarity
We study politics though concepts.
Concepts: War, Conservatism, Capitalism, etc.
Concepts are Idea Types. Clarify but never give 100% of whats going on.
Example: War 2 types – Interstate (2 states) vs Intrastate (Civil)
Representative: what we are living in, democratic leaders.
Participatory: Voting, Tax money allocation.
Country: The land that belongs to a specific state.
Independent self governing political community.
Enclosed within boundary lines.
Inside the boundary is the state’s jurisdiction.
Inside the area of that states it has its own.
Power to make laws for those who live within the territory Lecture 2: The State 12/17/2013
Not all states can maintain sovereignty (Military presence is key)
Government, makes decisions which impacts the society and how it monitors how those decisions are put into place.
Rules and Laws
Programs put into place: unemployment, environmental.
Those who make decisions, including Prime Minister.
Cabinet, Civil Service, Beaucracy
Courts: enforce punishment when state laws are broken.
Military: Enforces the states orders beyond it’s borders.
3 States in Canada
Over 190 states in the world.
Chief functioning is maintaining order; and the morality that is preserved. Lecture 2: The State 12/17/2013
Defend property, maintain property and free of violence
Control over the weak
An instrument that one class uses to rule over other classes or the subordinate classes.
Laws are maintained by the threat of physical force and those violating the laws are punished.
State has monopoly on determining who can use violence, and what violence is ok.
Physical force is never enough that the states rule is upheld.
States rule is maintained only if its rule is seen as legitimate.
Popular acceptance of authority or rule in the state.
State and it’s ruler gained legitimacy on religious or hereditary grounds.
Only legitimate if the people have to Consent to it’s rule. (voting)
Power that is considered legitimate by those who rule. 3 types.
Traditional: Monarchy inherit position, sacrificed by religion.
Legal: rule/procedures rather than personal qualities of a leader. Act in accordance to policies – authority is limited.
Charismatic: Individual leaders, acceptance because of respect to the leader and follow devotionally. Lecture 3: Freedom, Equality and Democracy
Fighting to control state apparatus, once that is obtained you are able to do whatever you want. Lecture 3: Freedom, Equality and Democracy
What is a Nation?
Community of people that feel tied together.
Descend from a particular homeland
Share historical memories
Common culture and practices.
Common political destiny
A nation isn’t from a descending particular homeland, or through a sharing of political traits.
A nation is a group of people that FEEL that they create a community. They understand they are
becoming part of a nation.
Not destined to be Canadian, we become Canadian.
Created the kilt
Form on national Scottish identity.
View that the world is divided into nations. Lecture 3: Freedom, Equality and Democracy
Nation is the only source of political power.
Interests and values of a nation take priority of all other interests and values
Each nation must have an independent state or something close to it, so they can maximize their freedom.
If nations are not allowed to maximize their freedom, peace is not possible.
Sovereign state based on people living in a country who share a sense of being a member of a particular nation.
Alternative: MultiEthnic State
Canada – people descent from all over the world.
Importance to Emphasize One Language
State will have a better chance of survival
Public community held together by law. It is independent from the state, used by may to describe a realm of self governing
society. Private institutions, School boards.
Discussions and debates take place.
Serve as a watch dog and keep things more democratic
Represents all those organizations that do the states work which makes it look acceptable in the eyes of citizens. The purpose of
a state works to keep power and wealth in the hands which have it. The state exercise power and punishment when their rules
The perspective of the state is accepted as common sense hegemony is achieved.
Promotion of views that makes people question the state. Lecture 4: Liberalism and The State 12/17/2013
Glifford Geertz (19262006) Lecture 4: Liberalism and The State 12/17/2013
Produced a sense of explanation through form and order.
Liberalism grows out of the way property was managed and owned in Europe.
Social system, the way society runs
Everyone has there place in the feudal system.
King at the top, then nobility (noble lords), Knights, craftsman and then serfs, or peasants.
Merchants or business people. Sold linen, silk and wool. Sold grain on the market. Worked for their money
Anything that produces goods or services, is called capital. When things are owned by the society and not by the state, you have
Adam Smith (17231790), David Ricardo (17721823)
They wrote the concerns from the merchant class, these ideas and body of thought, were similar and they came up with
Key idea: Hard work should determine ones fate, not birth. Nothing wrong with making money. It makes people hard working and
Everyone is able to enjoy success and life.
Devine rule. Rlue of Law.
Basic rights that belong to each person. Freedom of speech and association. Freedom of religion. And the Right to own property.
Government and state should have a limited role in people lives.
Taxation should be voluntary
John Stuart Mill (18061873)
As long as your actions don’t limit the freedom of others or cause them harm, then you should leave them alone Lecture 4: Liberalism and The State 12/17/2013
Economy refers to a system where goods and service are produced, distributed among a population and consumed by that
It is not from the benevolence of the butcher…or the baker that we expect our dinner but from the regard to their own self
Thomas Sowell (1930)
Hurricane hits, then theirs a price gauge.
State enforce contracts, and a court system to enforce the court terms. Protecting property, you also need roads and rail way
Inequality prevents people form acting freely.
The trick is to work hard, that is how you get success.
The states should act to secure the individual from pain and loss. The state should provide all those things needed to survive, but
also to find success. Equality of opportunity, giving people their basic starting point with necessities. So they can overcome their
strains to freedom. Lecture 5: Conservatism and The State 12/17/2013
The States Role in Conservatism
Conservatism as a Principle
Moderate or cautious behavior
Lives a conventional and conformist lifestyle
Fear of sudden change
Traditional Conservatism: Developed as reaction to the French Revolution
Edmund Burke: (17291797): Ideas of Enlightenment and Ability to Reason
Reason used to reorder society ▯ Goal: Make Society Perfect
Enlightenment: people began to use reason/think for themselves.
Change that is rushed is dangerous. Liberalism emphasis dangerous.
French Revolution: Church was found root of all problems; took its wealth, destroyed statues, changed street names, no
longer used Christian calendar.
Order: Strong fundamental of Traditional Conservatism ▯ need authority to govern Lecture 5: Conservatism and The State 12/17/2013
Tradition: Values, Practices and Institutions that have endured through time.
Organism: Society is like a living body, different functions but work in unity
Change: Leads to destruction of social body
Believe: Without structure one will lack feeling of belonging. Belong to group
Freedom: duties and obligations towards those who depend on us.
Revolution: Radical widespread change in society’s social, political, and economic order, especially one made suddenly and
accompanied by violence.
Traditional Conservatives Goal: To make sure the way of life is maintained
Through experience one becomes a wise decision maker
State should have role, to decide what is best for society ▯ if change is to be made: DON’T RUSH IT; let society adapt gradually
State: is not going to tell the people how to relive their lives ▯gradual approaches
To restrict an item from being used ▯ add taxes
Effort to make everyone equal is wrong some people have more ability/drive
Differences in wealth give incentives for people to work hard.
Conservatives have a strict policy on crime ▯ liberals believe more in rehab Lecture 5: Conservatism and The State 12/17/2013
Paternalistic Conservatives: skeptical of change but open to it (right leader)
Benjamin Disaraeli (18041891) ▯ feared inequalities from the industrial revolution would lead to hardships, chaos, and people
The rich are obligated to help the poor ▯ society is obligation and duty
Price of privilege is to help the poor, if not society will fall apart
Liberal Conservatism: 2 types
1 ▯ State should meet the basic needs of the citizens are met
Hugh Segal ▯ Basic income law ▯ every Canadian can meet basic needs
Rid of welfare ▯ creates dependency
Instead top off individuals incomes so they can cover basic needs
2 ▯ Society is a collection of selfinterest individuals
Some will be rich some will be poor
Need to give leader power to rule
Function of state: maintain law and order and property rights
State should stay out of way, state jobs ▯ merit principle is lost
Keep taxes low, high taxes create disincentives for change/innovation
Want state out of economy to maintain order and continuity Lecture 6: Utopian Socialism 12/17/2013
Socialism’s approach to human nature
Comes from Sociare > to combine and share.
No monopoly on caring
How we see hu