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Lecture 11

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Department
Political Science
Course
Political Science 1020E
Professor
Nigmendra Narain
Semester
Summer

Description
Domestic Security Sources of Security Issues • The territorial state: a) Defends its interests and secrets from outsiders b) Concerns itself with internal dissidents. Especially where connections exist  with outside forces  c) Taxes in order to defend and govern, and so pursues even better information  on people and property d) Takes interest in movement of goods and people within and through borders • Perspectives: a) Liberal: Sustains Rule of law on foundation of consensus, impartial  b) Conservatives: Sustains power and authority in face of constant threat of  disorder c) Radical: Serves elites, requires constant check and challenge  • Police State: Abandons constitutionalism, rule of law  Providers of Domestic Security • “Bobbies” replaced military in providing domestic order • Military remains as extension of state’s monopoly of violence, aim of executive  • Can deter or suppress rebellion, revolution • Or offer itself as ‘above politics’ alternative to civilian rule  The Military in Regime Change • Barany—Military can influence prospects of revolutionary challenge, regime  change:  a) Is the military united or divided?  b) How strong is military’s support for regime? c) What is the nature of the military­society relationship? d) How strong is external pressure for regime change?  Inside/Outside Distinction? • With Globalization, ever more difficult to sustain – porous borders • With 9/11, security no longer national or international issue, but a global one  • Blurring of national/International divide provides opportunities for governments  to frame security issues in politically or ideologically advantageous ways  The Security State: USA • Historical reluctance to establish permanent federal security agency – FBI 1908,  grew during cold war  • Damaging revelations led to rollback 1970s • Then Came 9/11: a) “War on terror” b) Patriot Act 2001 – Expanded surveillance  c) Department of homeland security, 2003  The Security State: Canada • Historically, RCMP managed federal security • World War II: Cold war and FLQ crisis justified expansion in security apparatus  • Under pressure to ‘civillanize’ CSIS created 1984 without right to investigate  “lawful advocacy, protest or dissent” • 9/11 – Anti­terrorist act­ enhanced surveillance and detention capacity  Democratic Accountability • Enhanced security provisions may undermine liberal constitutional democracy  • Strong oversight may undermine security effectiveness, induce politicization • Can involve political executive, legislative assembly, or judiciary  • Role for public opinion – Via galvanizing events (Mother Arar) or Whistleblowers  (Edward Snowden)  International Security Approaches to International Relations  • Realism­ A power politics model emphasizing: a) The National Interest, National security  b) The balance of power
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