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Political Science Fascism.docx

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Political Science
Political Science 1020E
Charles Jones

Fascism Fascism: Why should we care? th “Fascism was the major political innovation of the 20 century and the source of much of its pain.” – Robert Paxton Fascism: Some Features • ‘Fasces’ : refers to a bundle of rods that were bound together- unite together, people as one, with an axe head at the top – representation of political authority (axe) and social unity (bundle) • Strength through unity • Totalitarian- total control from the top down of all aspects of society. Everyone group is subject to that state and ruler itself. Demands total loyalty from the people. No separation of the public and the private – Dictatorship (one ruler with supreme power). Violence against anyone who disagrees • Reactionary – reacts against the enlightenment (humanism, rationalism, liberalism, secularism, progress, moral universalism) – all are rejected by fascists. Liberals value individuals which is wrong. Rejects the socialist idea of identity based on classes • Cult of Leadership: quasi-religious belief in the leader • Mass Mobilization through a Monopolistic Political Party – mobilizing the people (bringing them in). People as a ‘mass’ are mobilized. No room for individual independent political parties or interest groups. No way for individuals to express opinions in a public forum • Destruction of all Intermediate Organizations (eg trade unions) – there are structures but they are meaningless. No allowed to control their own organizations • Abolition of Privacy: no private thought or activity. Family should report disloyalty from their family members to the state. • Rule of Law Replaced by Arbitrary Violence: Fascism: Background Ides • Counter-Enlightenment: against the idea of the role of reason, science, citizenship, equality. Fascists emphasize what divides humans, not what unites us. (Divided by sex, race, nationality). Fascists are anti-intellectual . A revolt against ideas associated with the enlightenment and the French revolution “1789 is dead” “Fraternity, revolution, liberty is dead” • Nationalism: idea that there are mutually unintelligible national culture. Fascism has orienting function. Who am I? – a part of this national culture. The world is divided into distinct nations – enemy with those from a different nation • Elitism: inevitably, not matter how you organize a group, a elite will
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