PoliSci1020E February 15, 2012
Systems and Public Policy
Human Rights (Tribunal)
Protection of citizens from discrimination. This applies to employment, services, and
housing. If a person or company is found guilty, they are usually forced to pay
approximately $10 000 in compensation.
Almost all states in the world have more than one government.
Almost 150 (out of 190) states; the most common.
Used by democratic and authoritarian states.
Can be municipal or regional.
Have their own legislature, and local governments can have their own elections.
Their power to make decisions is overseen and controlled by the central government.
Funding comes from central government, and can be cut at any time.
Central is in charge of the key aspects of social life. Local government are responsible for
more minor duties (e.g. garbage collection, parks & recreation, etc.).
Said to work best in small states. There is one set of policies/on system of law on major
issues – this brings about unity. However, in very large states, a unitary state would pose
serious problems, as one system would be controlling a very large state (e.g. Ottawa
would control Vancouver’s provincial government).
Canada and 25 other countries.
Divides power equally between central and local governments.
This means that the government cannot over-ride decisions made by provincial
governments. This is the main distinction between unitary and federal states.
Areas of jurisdiction.
o Points out which areas of government control which aspects of society and
Federalism in Canada
o Sub-governments = municipal and provincial.
o Municipal government is subservient to its superiors.
Actions taken by public officials to respond to public problems broadly understood
(health care wait times, environmental problems, educational curriculums, etc.).
Solution = a guide that flows from some general opinion or position. Can politicians make neutral and objective decisions? Or are they guided by perceptions?
What is Ontology?
o Ontology is concerned with the nature of being.
o From the Greek: ‘ont’ (being), ‘logos’ (theory).
o Key questions:
What is the world made up of?
What makes things tick?
o Perceptions are key and conditioned by one’s class, upbringin