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Political Science 1020E - PS - Lecture 22.docx

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Political Science
Political Science 1020E
Peter Fragiskatos

PoliSci1020E March 6, 2012 Lecture 22 TOPIC Immigration in Canada  Push/Pull Factors and Criticism  The immigration experience  Canada and immigration Immigration: The entry and permanent settlement of non-native people of another state. Migration: Temporary movement of people in and out of a state. Hot State: Where the immigrant goes to. Push/Pull Model  Push – war, environmental problems, poverty and unemployment, overpopulation, and discrimination.  Pull – peaceful society, available land, good economy and consequently demand for labour, political and fundamental freedoms. (Refugees are not immigrants.)  Problems o Gives a misleading picture, making it seem like the only reason people immigrate is to escape violence and hardship. When in fact, most immigrants are middle- class families during times of economic development and social change. o Overpopulation is made out to be a push factor, but it actually isn’t. (E.g. Germany and the Netherlands.) o Doesn’t make clear why some states are chosen over others. o Economic ties are ignored by the model. E.g. Germany relies on immigration for its economy (especially post-WWII). The Marshal Plan (a U.S. initiative) was the plan to rebuild the European economy. Its post-war economy continues to boom, and in the 1960’s, allowed “guest-workers” (mostly Turks). For the most part, them and their families are still there. o Not complex enough. Often times it is the family making the decision as a whole – not the individual. The individual often goes abroad to send back remittances. Women are often sent by the family because the males are required to work on the farm. o Talks about a lack of land as a push factor, but in reality, the problem is usually that there aren’t enough resources. Immigrant Experience  Because everything is new, even the simplest of tasks prove difficult and unsettling.  They worry about being judged and monitored, and want to belong.  Every society has written rules. o E.g. In Japan, being a good communicator is to be silent and self-controlled (listening and absorbing, not interjecting). o Other examples: gestures, telephone and conversation etiquette, etc.  They will always have an emotional attachment to home.  For those who stay, what keep them here? o Support Network: Family who’s already here and friends from the state of origin (advising them on unwritten rules, government paperwork, social functions, etc.)  Once large numbers of immigrants come, there is more of an established support network. o Cultural centres o Churches o Sports teams These are created to maintain the identity of the group.  Immigrants fear that they will unlearn themselves (forget the language, religion, traditions, etc.). You’re left with no operating system to translate and interpret the world if you do forget.  One key function of cultural clubs is to host dances, which are the physical expression of emotion. Without these reminders, loss of culture proves analogous to death.  Cultural centres also help immigrants compose resumes and find jobs. In addition, they help to re-create the society of origin in the new society. They experience of immigrants is fragmented, making them feel lost (half here, half there), and there centres are a source of refuge.  However, in current generations, the young aren’t inclined to continue thes
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