According to the preferred definition of Politics from the last lecture politics,
• Necessarily involves violence
• Requires strong leaders
• Dealing with conflict
• Best left to experts
• Better than sex
Answer is way of dealing with conflict.
What is Authority:
• The right to command (exercise of power allege to be legitimate, legitimate
power)( the right to tell people what to do judges interpret laws, police direct traffic all
agents of the state tell people what to do and those decisions stick)
• The right to punish those who disobey ( is state authority justified doing these
rules or else, people tell you what to do who justifies this and why should the state be
allowed to justify this)
State of Nature:
• A way of answering why do we need a state
• Engage in a thought experiment (Hypothetical life without a state)
• Life without the state and political power (Hobbes disagreed with Aristotle that we
are not political animals by nature but rather by convention)
• Levethian (sea monster that can provide order)
• State is the only thing that can contain it
• Fear (born because his mother was afraid, “fear and I born twins”
• War (left England because of civil war need to avoid especially civil war because
this is were authority disappears and the results are terrifying.
• Peace: key idea the avoidance of having a war, main rule to preserve your life is
to seek peace
What Hobbes claims
• Worst scenario: no state protection. (worst thing we can imagine is life without
the state. Powerful state is needed to avoid disastrous interpersonal conflict. ( need
order that has awe frightening and impressive)
Hobbes on Human nature
• Introspection (own motivation forget about what we know think about yourself)
• Materialism: materialsist in a 20th century mechanist sense we are all just
machines very complex. Just bodies always in motion.
• Felicity: (Happiness) Hobbes says continual success of getting what you want.
• Power: ones presence means to obtain some future apparent good. Have power
then have capacity to get what you want and have Felicity.
• Never satisfied in this life only desire for power
• Predominantly self regarding( we don’t care about other people you would try to
• Seek to enhance reputation: we care about what other think about us. Status
• Averse to our own de