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Lecture 9

Political Science 2230E Lecture 9: 2230 March 21

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Political Science
Political Science 2230E
Cameron Anderson

Political Science 2230 March 21, 2017 Gender Politics Major Questions: What evidence do feminist scholars point to when advancing the claim that women in Canada have yet to achieve gender equality? formal equality vs substantive equality Formal Equality: men and women have reached gender equality because only requirement is that all citizens regardless of sex and gender receive an identical scheme of civil and political rights o does not look at whether the equal distribution of rights have led to equality in every day equality Substantive Equality: embraces equal rights, but further, asks whether equal rights and liberties have actually resulted in gender parity in income, poverty, access to seats in political and econ power, etc. o feminists often use substantive, therefore not achieved in Canada o advance statistics: economic stats: lower incomes than man, 2008 avg. pretax income of women = 65 of comparable to men o many more women work part time than men, but even when staticians look only at full time full year, still find women in Canada work less than men o 2014, women only made 74 of what male counterparts made, only looking at full time full year o historically, gap has remained fully constant (7074) since 1999 o does wage gap persist with university degrees? found that regardless of level of university education, still make 2535 less than men earn (same level of education) o is it getting better? trend seems to be that it is getting bigger February 2010 Canadian Labor Congress o gets worse for female university graduates 1981 women making 84.4 of what men make, (university degrees) all time low 12.2 gender wage gap on the rise, 3034 o Women earned only 68.8 of male counterparts o Answer: childcare, presumptions about who will take on majority of childcare o Women have drop in income in adjustment to having a child o As women become more educated, wage gap increases o Men with doctorates 2x as likely to have professor positions o Women in academia receive wage gap, female professors receive 79 cents on the dollar o 2005, gender based payout at Western 2009, gender gap reinvented itself Canada on an international level UN Gender Equality Index, 2014 Canada at 25 o International organization suggests 35th General stats treating women ass a homogenous group, but differences between other levels such as race Visible minority women: better educated than nonvisible minority, 39.7 of visible minority women have a university degree, compared with 27 of nonvisible minority women o Experienced higher levels of unemployment Poverty in Canada more women than men live in poverty
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