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Lecture 10

Political Science 2230E Lecture 10: Lecture 10 March 1st Gender Politics 2nd Semester

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Political Science
Political Science 2230E
Cameron Anderson

Major Questions: than men who have same level 1.What evidence do feminist scholars point to of education • Trend seems to be that the gap is getting when advancing the claim that women in CA even bigger; have yet to achieve gender equality? o In 2010, a report indicated that • Feminists do suggest that women in CA gender gap gets worse for remain unequal female university graduates. • Formal Equality: men & women in CA o In 1991, women were making 84% of what men made w/ have reached gender equality b/c all it requires for citizens to be provided w/ university degrees equality is that all citizens receive an o For a while, things improved. identical scheme of civil & political But, in 1991, it declined to an all time low of 12.2%. rights – men & women have same set of basic rights & entitlements, so women in o Fast forward 10 years & gender CA are equal. It doesn’t look at whether wage gap has been on the rise, that equal distribution has led to gender 30-40% since then o In 2009, women w/ uni degrees equality in day to day life • Substantive Equality: embraces the earned only 63% of what their precepts of formal equality, but goes similar educated men earned further – it asks questions of whether o Why is it getting worse? ▪ Child care; they have really resulted in equality for women. This is a measure feminists presumptions about who generally employ. If we use this, is going to take care of feminists concluded gender equality has the child. When they have a child, women are not been prevalent in CA • Economic statistics show women in CA more likely to adjust have lower incomes than men; their job & experience o In 2008, annual pre-tax for significant earnings penalty women was only 65% for the comparable figure of men o Stats show gender gap remains o This could be b/c many more no matter how well educated women work part-time women are; it is highest at the university level o However, even when stats look at employment & only at full • When you combine gender w/ visible time, they still find that women minority women, it gets worse in CA earn less than men • More women also live below the cut-off line, & this is especially true for single o In 2014, women still only made 74% of what their male women; counterparts earned full time for o In 2008, 18% of single parent both. fams lived below the low- income cut-off, & 93% of them o This gap has remained constant since 1999 were headed by mothers • Does it get better when women have • Feminists argue that employment university degrees? patterns show a very clear sexual division of labour; we see women o In 2008, stats CA report found regardless of education, women clustered in “traditional female jobs” can expect to make 25-30% less (nursing, teaching, clerical & st th • In 1 half of 20 century, women were administrative, & other HC occupations) assigned an inferior status in society, o Women are overrepresented in which has been an illustration of certain low paying fields patriarchy: the domination of women o The higher in any profession, by men. Men were considered an the fewer women likely to see economic & political elite that ▪ In 2006, not a single dominates the public world, & also in woman made the list of private realm as heads of families, etc. top CEO’s in CA • Women were treated as either children, economy or as possessions of men; property. ▪ In 2009, 7 out of every • Women didn’t enjoy basic political & 10 part-time workers civil rights – at Confederation, the only were female, & this has people who could vote in CA were changed very little over property owning white males time • Married women were treated as the o Why are there so many part- property of husbands, not considered time workers who are women? legal entities, & couldn’t enter contracts, ▪ Child care, elder care, own or dispose property, if they did or can’t find full time work they had no right to their own work wages, & no guardianship rights over ▪ In 2012, 73% of women their own children w/ kids under 5 worked • Prior to 1947, women didn’t have any outside home, but only citizen status; women essentially enough daycare spaces belonged to the relevant man in her life to accommodate 22% of kids (dad, husband, etc.) • If a Canadian man married a non- • In terms of economic status, women citizen, he kept his citizenship & women experience gender poverty, sexual got citizenship as well division of labour, difficulty finding • Criminal Law: the only women childcare specially to work full time, & protected by early sexual assault laws significant wage gap regardless of level were either virgins, or if they were of education married. If a woman who was a virgin 2. What is the difference between a person’s sex, was sexually assaulted, the person who & a person’s gender? was harmed was her father, not her, & if she was married, the harm occurred to • Sex: refers to a person’s anat
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