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Lecture 11

Political Science 2230E Lecture 11: Lecture 11 2nd Sem March 8th Multiculturalism

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Political Science
Political Science 2230E
Cameron Anderson

Multiculturalism, Race, & Ethnicity: them in becoming fully functioning CA citizens) Major Questions: o 2 Objective: Cultural Preservation: (3 & 4 – on 1 1.Why were the 1967 amendments to CA’s Immigration Act significant for patterns of hand want them to be fully immigration? integrated in CA, but not going to ask them to give up their • In the 1 100 yrs of CA immigration, identities to do so) laws were explicitly racist • Critiques: • Whites of British origin were viewed as o Criticisms from ethnic model citizens minorities themselves; it wasn’t • There was only 2% of immigrants from good enough to have Asia multiculturalism w/in a • Early 20 century, CA started looking bilingual context, it didn’t go far for other settlers to look for hard enough to equalize them, & it working agricultural people was just symbolic & ethnic • 1967 was a pivotal year for immigration; cultural minorities were still left amendments to the immigration act behind. changed patterns of immigration by o Criticism that revolves around moving away from explicit racial the idea of hyphenated discrimination & move towards a point Canadians, some don’t want to system, which led to traumatic changes be “Polish-Canadian”, they • In 1997, 54% of immigrants were from would just like to be Canadian Asia, & 18% from British vs. the 90% instead of constantly being from Britain in 1967 marked as different o Significant criticism inside 2. What were the basic objectives of CA’s 1971 Quebec: multiculturalism is official policy of multiculturalism? What criticisms of the policy emerged? viewed as undermining Quebec’s claim to be a distinct • In 1971, Pierre Trudeau adopted the society – w/ multiculturalism, French culture is just another policy of “Official Multiculturalism”: explicitly adopted w/in a bilingual culture among many & is not framework to recognize this new distinct w/ special powers & status diversity in CA & recognize diverse cultures that now make up a pluralistic 3. Why is 1981-1989 characterized as society multiculturalism’s “era of growth”? What policy o 2 Objectives: (1) to remove efforts marked this period? barriers to full participation in society, & (2) to assist • There was a secure consensus among all immigrants in acquiring at least parties that multiculturalism was 1 official language, (3) to assist valuable st new CA’s in retaining their • 1 Policy Effort: 1981 Creation of Race ethnic identities, & (4) promote Relations Unit: more acts of racism were creative exchange between diff emerging & it became more urgent cultural groups focus as more visible minorities entered o 1st Objective: Integration (help CA. The Race Relations Unit integrate immigrants & assist emphasized the need to address racism significant succession & a lot of chatter as part of the multiculturalism program that immigrants were taking a lot of jobs • (2) Recognition of multicultural values • The Meech Lake Accord also had just in the Charter: Charter was enacted in failed, & a lot suggest that this signalled 1982 & enhanced status of the beginning of the attack multiculturalism (freedom of religion, • Multiculturalism was being attacked as a no discrimination based on race, etc.) policy designed to preserve cultural • (3) Creation of new govt discourse difference. Many politicians, etc. were around multiculturalism; this suggesting the problem w/ Meech specifically was 1 that was linking Accord was that too many groups were multiculturalism in very positive way to trying to participate in it & that these CA economy & business interests – groups injected themselves into the “Multiculturalism Means Business” – process. Specific group if people pointed CA govts were now promoting the value fingers at ethnic cultural minorities. of multiculturalism & promoting the However, the real reason it failed was value in context of international trade in b/c too many people were trying to globalized era. They believed elevate special interests over the good of multiculturalism was an important tool the nation. that can help CA stay competitive in • This sentiment about Meech came out new emerging global economy. very clearly in “Spicer Commission • (4) Enactment of Canadian Report 1991”: initiated by Mulroney in Multiculturalism Act (1988) under wake of failed Meech Lake Accord & Brian Mulroney & was like the 1971 talked 40,000 CA into giving them a goals, still w/ both objectives in place chance to speak & issue a report that paid special attention to multiculturalism • (5) Creation of a separate department of multiculturalism & citizenship in 1991; & noted a large # of CA’s identified the fact a separate line was created ethnocultural difference as a barrier to showed it was gaining more prominence national unity. They said fed funding w/in fed bureaucracy should only be given for reducing • W/ all these different things, we do see racism, promoting equality, & that 81-89 represented a real high water promoting integration for new CA’s. mark on CA multiculturalism w/ a lot of The 1 objective of 1971 was still being supported that they should integrate into support & we see that thru policy changes. CA society, but it didn’t talk about the 2 half about cultural preservation. 4/ Why did support for multiculturalism by the o Spicer Commission suggested CA public go into decline in the 1990s? How we take culture out of was the decline evident in fed policy & fed party politics? multiculturalism in favour of equal individual citizens & equality among them • Started to see increasing opposition in o Overarching idea that we belong 1990s towards multiculturalism which comes from both the public & the to CA as individual citizens & parties themselves should all be treated as universal, undifferentiated • Part of the explanation was economic; in citizens over the rights of the early 90s CA’s experienced groups 5. According to the critical race scholars, what • We started seeing fed parties reacting to the Spicer Commission & taking the are some of CA’s greatest myths? same stance about shifting away from the emphasis of
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