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Polisci 2230 March 12th.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
Political Science 2230E
Professor
Gaile Mc Gregor
Semester
Winter

Description
Polisci 2230 March 12 th Regionalism - What are the 3 models of MP representation? (which model is best?) – POSSIBLE EXAM Q • Regionalism An ideology or political activity aimed at mobilizing regional identities and interests in support of a particular political claim that is tied to the wellbeing of a regional community. The claims are made against the larger political community of which the regional community is a part. Region is particularly important in Canada – pervades our entire political system and political discourse Ex. Kyoto Protocol Region has important implications for most policies Mobilizing – the people of the region have some goal in mind Regional agreements – relationship between federal gov’t and particular regions • Region Different from “province” Supra-provincial or sub-provincial Regions in Canada (Quebec, Ontario, West, East) • Sources, effects and the bases of regionalism - West, Ontario & the Eastern Provinces Regionalism stems from two main sources: Economic & Political Grievances Economic & Political Grievances (not necessarily mutually exclusive) • Economic  Refer to Powerpoint for chart • Political  Is the system rigged in favour of one or more region?  Are the political rules in the game fixed in favour of central Canada? Atlantic Canada • Economic grievances Tariff policy/national policy  1879 John A MacDonald implemented the tariff policy – increase the price of some things going over the border by 30% so that people are more likely to buy things in Canada  Secondary manufactured goods in Ontario had tariffs Financial terms of the union  Colonies had to give up their taxation powers  An Anti-Confederation movement emerged in Nova Scotia and that party won the provincial election - Regulation of the fishing industry  Regulation of the fishing industry – Northern cod stock collapsed (fishing industry relied heavily on cod stock) – cold weather, overfishing, interference by seals  By mid 93, 40,000 workers lost their jobs • Political grievances Hesitance to join Canada Decline in Parliamentary power The West: Economic Grievances - region is associated with agriculture - Alberta and Sask have high levels of oil and natural gas, also coal • Tariffs/national policy - tariffs added to most manufactured goods - if you’re a farmer or someone working in a natural resource industry, you have to buy things from Ontario because of the tariffs, but at the same time you have to compete against the Americans when it comes to selling the products - strong history of demanding lower tariffs • Freight rates Crow rate – abolished by Chretian in 1995 Fee that train companies have to pay to use the train tracks (freight rates) The cost depended on what the train was carrying The cost for carrying finished goods was higher than the cost for carrying raw materials Trudeau increased the rates to bring grain across because the railways were losing too much money • Natural resource ownership The National Energy Program (NEP) Stagflation (economy was Stagnating, but the inflation was huge) OPEC started charging more money for their petroleum In response, Trudeau implemented the NEP  2 principles: 1. Security of supply, 2. Fairness with the pricing regime (all Canadians could benefit from the increased price of oil) - Federal government encouraged new development of oil and gas in frontier areas - They kept prices for oil within Canada artificially low (told oil producers what price you could sell oil at to other Canadians) - Secondary manufacturing was getting hammered The West: Political Grievances • Members of Parliament not responsive to their regional constituents Party discipline The region is geographically isolated (Ottawa) and people were afraid that MPs began to see the world from Ottawa rather than the West MPs might be fighting for their region behind closed doors, but once a party makes a decision, that’s the end of it • Share of HoC seats 181 of 308 seats are in ON and QU house is based on rep by pop Ontario & Quebec have 181 of 308 seats (more than enough to win majority) Parties propose or implement policies that are popular in Ontario in Quebec • Senate reform Triple-E? Feel that the gov’t is controlled by central Canadian interests One way for the west to gain more power is an elected senate Considered in the constitutional debates in the 80s and 90s, but no changes were made Western Alienation • Economic discontent - belief that the political system is structured to the disadavantage of the west (ex. Resource management) • Rejection of semi-colonial status - getting control over your home natural resources; equality with the federal gov’t - feeling among the west that they are treated as subordinate to federal provinces • Antipathy towards Quebec and French-Canadian influence within the national government - a lot of people in the west feel that the federal government caters too much to Quebec - Ex. Constitutional debates (headed by the conservatives) – focused mainly on Quebec - Ex. Bilingualism – not popular in the West because there are not many French people there - In 69, Trudeau passed the official languages act – forced public service employees to learn both English & French - In 82, language rights were constituted in the Charter • Irritation at with West’s partisan weakness within a succession of Liberal national governments - gave t
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