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Western University
Political Science
Political Science 2230E
Gaile Mc Gregor

Federalism: March 5 , 2013 Canada’s subnational units  Provinces: premiers instead of PM, left tenant governor, no upper chamber, MPP, members of the national assembly (QB), members of legislative assembly (MLAs) o Federal gov’t cannot take away their rights: constitutionally entrenched  Comparison to federal government  Differences  Similarities  Municipal governments o Subordinate to territorial and provincial gov’t o Can unilaterally make changes to scope of municipalities o Creatures of the province o Responsible for property services: garbage, sewers, police, etc. o Share some health services o  Territories o Tend to get overlooked o 40% of landmass but 3% of the population o Almost no body there: why called a territory?  Politics run differently  Aboriginal culture influences system of politics  Politics is less confrontational  Clear distinction between province: relation similar with fed gov’t as municipalities  Gov’t can add and change laws in territories Federalism  Federalism: o “A system of government in which political authority is divided between two or more constitutionally distinct orders or levels of government” o Interstate federalism: relationship between order of governments o Intrastate federalism: subnational gov’t have rep at national level within the federal government o Neither level is subordinate to the other in theory o Relationship between systems o 2 levels of gov’t, both are separate neither is subordinate  Alternatives? o Unitary state: China is the largest  Why are they unitary? Size, and geographically based regions o Dissolution: becoming several countries, i.e. Eastern Europe: Soviet,  Why federalism? o To prevent or resolve conflict: dissuades foreign threats from attacking, a method to prevent foreign aggression  Less likely to fight one another o To promote economic prosperity  Trade becomes easier  Things are cheaper to produce in unit, i.e. healthcare  International trade rules o Allows groups to have sovereignty while still associating with a larger entity.  Allow for regionally  Based differences  Minority groups have to be regionally based  Centralization o When power flows from subnational gov’t to other smaller parts  Decentralization o Power shifting from gov’t to subjects The Confederation Settlement 1) Division of Powers  Constitution Act gave most of the things that were important were given to the federal gov’t, and lesser important things to the provinces  29 federal powers o Regulation of trade, commerce, criminal law, national defense, Indians and lands reserves,  Provincial powers o Maintenance of persons, administering prisons, hospitals and asylums, natural resources o Anything not explicitly listed or given to the provinces is supposed to go to the federal gov’t  Concurrent powers o Agriculture and immigration  Sections 91 & 92 o Responsibilities and rules of gov’t (different levels) o Residual powers 2) Division of financial resources o Indirect and direct taxation 3) Federal controls imposed on the provinces
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