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Lecture 15

Political Science 2230E Lecture 15 Jan 22.docx

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Western University
Political Science
Political Science 2230E
Gaile Mc Gregor

2230 Lecture 15 Jan. 22 Charlottetown Accord (1992) • Lessons from Meech • Provisions of Charlottetown Accord Canada Clause  Listed the characteristics that were guidelines for the judiciary: recognition of Quebec as a distinct society; declaration that Aboriginal gov’ts form a 3 order of gov’t; included a commitment to the 2 official languages; affirmation of the equality of provinces; commitments to gender and racial equality Aboriginal self-government  Still subject to the charter  Couldn’t override the charter Senate reform  Demand for this came from the west  Charlottetown provided for a trip E senate (equal, effective, elected) Division of Powers  Decentralization (some things handed over to the provinces from the federal gov’t) • Reasons for failure Referendum Anti-Mulroney sentiment Substance of Accord - Federal gov’t agreed to process of consultation with Aboriginals - Federal gov’t decided to hold a referendum on Charlottetown - By the end of August 1992 they arrive at the Charlottetown Accord (constitutional package) Post Charlottetown • The end of mega-Constitutional politics? • Unresolved issues Quebec  With respect to the Veto, they passed the constitutional amendments act Aboriginal peoples  Formal recognition of Aboriginal self-gov’t  Creation of Nunavut Devolution of powers Senate reform  Changes to the non-entrenched part of the constitution relating to the senate  Alberta went ahead and had their own senate elections The Executive The Crown • THE executive in theory, but not practice Dual executive • The Queen  Lives in Britain – needs representation in Canada  Her rep. is the governor General David Johnston – modern version of the powerful colonial governors (discussed in earlier lectures) • The Governor General (David Johnston)  Began to work for Canada in 1926 and stopped working for the British gov’t Lieutenant Governor (in provinces) – equivalent to gov general, except at provincial level • Sources of the Crown’s power  Constitution Act of 1867  Queen & Crown involved in sec. 9 & 17 Constitution Act, 1867 s. 9 – Executive power vested in the Queen s. 17 – lists the Queen as part of Parliament s. 12 – Gives power of the Monarchy to the GG The Governor General • Royal Prerogative  Residual power of the crown  Based on custom and convention • Reserve Powers Appointing and dismissing the PM Dissolving Parliament (or not) – calling an election or not Constitutional convention (unwritten rules of the game that are the way they are, because that’s the way they have been) • Usually just a “rubber stamp” • But not always… Charles Tupper (1896)  Conservative prime minister, but lost the election of 1896  Refused to resign and said he would stay on as prime minister until the house sits and he’s defeated King-Byng (1926)  One of the appointees was accepting bribes  Went to Byng and asked him to call an elective  Byng said no and gave the conservative party a chance to rule
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