Class Notes (808,559)
Canada (493,292)

Jan 16 - the World Wars.docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Political Science
Political Science 2231E
Jessica Trisko

Review of Week 1 (examples of exam term IDs) January 16, 2013 Pax Britannica  100 years of British power  Century without great power conflict  Immense naval power  Ended in response growing naval superiority from the United States and Germany  British an empire where the sun never set – the world’s first empire Congress of Vienna  Created the Concert of Europe  Collective defense agreement  Intended to preserve the balance of power in Europe German Unification  Driven by Otto von Bismarck  Step-by-step strategy which included two major wars  Territorial expansion of Germany in turn created a rigid alliance system  Lead to the start in WWI Thirty Years War      Balance of Power      The World Wars January 16, 2013 The 19 Century Global Economy  The Industrial Revolution spreads in Europe and North America  Freedom of global trade is underpinned by the gold standard o Each country’s currency was worth a certain amount in gold – it was the underlying value for currency. This becomes very important when we study the international political economy  Nationalism encourages the promotion of domestic industries  By the end of the 1880s, free trade began to collapse Potential Causes of WWI  Systematic: creation of system of nation-states generates competition o The rise of Germany changes the balance of power – challenges British domination o The development of rigid alliance system under Bismarck had set the stage o Economic change and competition – the quest for overseas empires, and resource. 1880s – much of the undiscovered world had been colonized and therefore the chances of finding undiscovered land was low. o Cult of the offensive – see notes  Domestic: nationalism and imperialism  Individual: Kaiser Wilhelm’s foreign policy Industrialization and Economic Competition  Industrialization in Britain and France, then Germany, Japan and United States  Prompts population growth, which contributes to political pressures  Emergence of a relationship between economic strength and military might o Technological advances spark arms races, make countries better able to wage devastating wars o Overseas power projection is necessary to maintain empires. o People become important as they contribute to the economic wealth through their labour The Rise of Germany  1888, Kaiser Wilhelm II comes to power  1897, Kaiser announces policy of weltpolitik o Goal of establishing an empire and “a place in the sun”  Naval competition with Britain begins in 1890s o Already the most powerful army in the world o 1898 begins a rapid fleet expansion leading to arms race  Series of foreign policy failures (Morocco, Balkans, etc) lead to belief that war may be necessary to prevail o War in the colonies themselves is not the answer, direct competition may be necessary  In general, not only was it the changing balance of power in Europe, the industrialization of Germany, but also the distinct foreign policy of the Kaiser The Alliance System  Rigid alliance system develops based on several ententes in the early 1900s, rather than flexible Bismarkian system  United States believes itself to be unaffected by threats in Europe  Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy o Ottoman Empire o Bulgaria joins later  Triple Entente (Allies): France, Russia, Britain, (Serbia) o Franco-Russian alliance of 1894 o Romania, Greece, Portugal, Japan later joins o Italy changes sides in 1915  Because of the rigid alliance structure, countries were drawn into conflict on treaties created prior to the conflict o Ex: Canada joining to help Britain Cult of the Offensive  Offense if seen to have the advantage  Operationalized by Germany’ Schlieffen Plan o Attack France while remaining defensive in the east o Predicated on slow Russian mobilization and quick French defeat  France has to plan to attack Germany  Austria-Hungary considered attacking Serbia or Serbia and Russia  Russia has a powerful incentive to mobilize Nationalism  Shared idea about legitimate political order, perceived commonality among people, exclusive right to a territorial homeland  Ex: Unification of Germany 1871, minority persecution in the Balkans (within the Ottoman Empire), and agitation of multi-national states (ex: Austria, Hungary)  As a cause of war o Increases the cost of war, makes conquests more difficult  People are more willing to fight for their country and willing to die  Mercenary armies o Contributed to collapsed of empires, wars causes by multinational states break apart (WWI, 1990s)  WWI – Ottoman Empire is dissolved  1990s – a lot of nationalist wars occurred in the areas affected by WWI o Contributed to wars of unification – caused by a desire to bring all members of one nation under the same (WWII) Imperialism  Originates in search for trade routes to Asia, goal of controlling trade, and European technological superiority o May be based on cosmopolitan views of “civilizing mission” or pure conquest  Competition over colonies leads to confrontation between great powers abroad  Britain suffers from imperial overstretch o Settler colonies in North America, Caribbean, and South Pacific; colonial territories in Asia and Africa o American Revolution 1776, costly Boer Wars in late 1800s  Ottoman Empire “sick man of Europe” – provides opportunity for new territorial gains in near abroad The July Crisis  28 June 1914: Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to the A-H throne) – assassinated by Serbians  5 July 1914: Germany pushes Austria-Hungary to go to war with Serbia or Serbia/Russia  14 July 1914: A-H presents ultimatum to Serbia which is rejected, both mobilize for war  28 July 1914: A-H declares war on Serbian and alliance system comes into effect The First World War  Russia begins mobilizing troops on the German border  Germany declares war on Russia and France o German troops disregard neutrality of Belgium to Luxembourg to sweep through France from the northeast - Schlieffen Plan  Despite the outbreak of war in July 1914 - 6 April 1917 – United States join war after being a major allied supplier for years o American isolation End of the Great War  As the French, British and Americans drive the Germans to the “Hindenburg Line,” Bulgaria falls, the Ottoman Empire sues for peace, and Austria-Hungary collapses  War-weary Germans revolt and the Kaiser and generals are forced to sign an armistice in Nov 11 1918 Characteristics of WWI Warfare  Trench warfare: 25000 total miles – enough the circle the earth 
More Less

Related notes for Political Science 2231E

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.