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The Origins of The International System .pdf

4 Pages

Political Science
Course Code
Political Science 2231E
Jessica Trisko

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Wednesday, 9 January, 2013 The Origins of The International System - Pre 1500:About 500 independent political units in Europe - 1500-1800: Dynastic or absolutists states try to maintain political unity - Division between state and society (feudal system, etc.) - Constant interstate wars - Transnational elites prevented total wars of destructions (a lot to do with the fact that rulers where inter related) - Post-1800: Consolidation after the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars - In 1900, 20 independent political units in Europe - Development of the modern nation-state (nationalism caused both war and unification) 17th Century European Conflict - Outbreak of the Thirty Years’War (1618-1648) - Begins with Protestant uprising in Bohemia andAustria, spreads throughout continent and loses its religious motivation - One of the longest continuous wars - Use of mercenary armies and territorial grabs - Thirty Years’War ends with the Peace of Westphalia (1648) Peace of Westphalia - Treaty established sovereignty in international law - Recognized that sovereignty rests with secular rulers - Gave each ruler the right to determine the religion of their state 18th Century Europe: Great Powers - Generally, great powers are both economically and militarily strong - Major players in the system with relatively large territory and population - France, England,Austria, Russia, Prussia, and the Ottoman Empire - Goal was to prevent a singly power from dominating the system War of Spanish Succession (1702-1713) - “GradAlliance” ofAustria, England, and the Netherlands versus France - Prevented French domination over Spain War ofAustrian Succession (1740-1748_ - France, Spain and Prussia VSAustria and England The Seven Years’War (1756-1763) - Austria, France and Russia opposed England and Prussia American Revolution (1776-1783) - England and France passed on debt from Seven Years’War to theAmerican colonies - Britain’sAmerican colonies revolted - Independence won with French Support French Revolution (1789-1793) - Disruption of the “Three Estates” system - Topples the French monarchy and establishes constitutional rule through a NationalAssembly - Promotes nationalism and liberalism as ideologies (Liberty, equality and Fraternity which become much more important in Western Europe in comparison to Eastern Europe) The Napoleonic Era (1792-1815) - 1799, General Napoleon Wages a coup d’etat and names himself First Consul of France - Territorial gains by 1810 - Controls Spain, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Poland and most of the Germany and Italy - Allied withAustria, Prussia, and Denmark but opposed by Britain - First defeat in 1814 forces his abdication - Second defeat in 1815comes at the hands of the British at Waterloo;; marks peak of British power Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) - Territorial settlement and guarantee of the neutrality of buffer states - Network of mutually reinforcing treaties - Security alliance between the Great Powers
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