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The End of The Cold War .pdf

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Political Science
Political Science 2231E
Jessica Trisko

Wednesday, 30 January, 2013 Waltz on Bipolarity - Bipolarity preceded two-power nuclear competition - Crises will recur - Conclusion: - Bipolarity is stable - but why? - Waltz argues product of scientific advancements - He argues Bipolarity means there is a large gap between U.S, S.U. and all other states - Is bipolarity durable - Argues crises allow bipolarity to remain stable.Argues that it allows tensions not to escalate. Therefore, he concludes bipolarity is stable. - Classical realist argue that bipolarity is not durable bc other groups of powers want to test the power of hegemonies. Waltz disagrees and argues that shuffling of alliances is what leads to war. Coalitions The End of The Cold War The Korean War (1950-1953) - U.S begins to view communist actions as a threat to its interests - TheAmerican military expands throughoutAsia - U.S. perceives a united Sino-Soviet front - Reflects the possibility of limited war in a nuclear world - Left U.S with greater sense of optimism with dealing with S.U. during Cold War - Set tone of non-nuclear Cold War Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) - Removed optimism - Soviets sent missiles to Cuba between May and October 1962 in OperationAnadyr - President Kennedy responds with a military blockade of Cuba - President Kennedy engages in (what is thought to be) direct communication with Khrushchev - USSR withdraws missiles after JFK promises not to invade Cuba Outcomes of Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) - Relaxation of Cold War tensions - Agreement on a limited nuclear test ban treaty - Establishment of Moscow-Washington “hotline” - USSR engages in a nuclear arms race with the U.S. - Example of brinkmanship (Creation/Manipulation of risk or rationality of irrationality) - Illustrates that gains are made a little piece at a time = Salami Involvement in the Third World - The USSR establishes ties with newly independent nation inAsia andAfrica - The United States seeks to limit Soviet influence in these developing countries - Stability/instability paradox: The more stable the nuclear balance between the superpowers, the less table the situations of third world countries are - Linked to concept of “Proxy Wars” The Vietnam War - Political competition in (U.S.-backed) South Vietnam armed opposition by North Vietnamese- supported Vietcong rebels - August 1964, the Gulf of Tonkin incident leads President Johnson to believe that North Vietnam has attacked U.S. destroyers - February 1965, Operation Rolling Thunder launched - May 1965, General Westmoreland requests 80,000 troops - July 1965, President Johnson announces an additional 125,000 U.S. troops to be sent to Vietnam The Nixon Doctrine - January 1969, Nixon takes office with the objective of avoiding future troop commitments abroad while remaining a dominant international power - Honor treaty commitments - Provide a nuclear shield - Build the defensive capacity of pivotal states through military and economic assistance - Pursue of Vietnamization policy to strengthen the South Vietnamese forces - Nixon sees Vietnam War as global struggle against communism The Vietnam War - InAugust 1974, President Gerald Ford takes office - InApril 1975, the U.S. evacuates the S. Vietnam falls - Approximately 2,544,000 Vietnamese casualties - American military fatalities are 58,220 Why did the Vietnam War Continue? - Shift from total war to instrastate conflicts during the Cold War - Entrapment - escalating spiral of commitment - Lack of a clear U.S. exit strategy - In February 1972, President Nixon visits China - Signaled new flexibility in U.S. policy - Nixon and Secretary of State Kissinger also sought to improve U.S. - Soviet relations - Acknowledged the USSR’s superpower status an d attainment of strategic parity with the United State - Moscow Summit marks the beginning of U.S. - Soviet cooperation Third
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