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WMDs and Terrorism .pdf

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Political Science
Political Science 2231E
Jessica Trisko

Wednesday, 20 March, 2013 WMDs and Terrorism Do Norms Matter in IR? Norm: shared expectation about behavior Shared idea- among a relevant group in which the norm holds sway Shared expectation- there is prescription (what we should do) or proscription (or what we shouldn’t do) regarding behavior Normative “success” cases in international security: Nuclear weapon testing restrictions Chemical weapons restrictions International ban on land mines Conventional Weapons: Considered small arms and light weapons, land mines, cluster munitions, missiles, heavy weapons, etc. Convention on the restriction of certain conventional weapons (1983) States share a normative agreement on what people believe is appropriate but not all states share this Nuclear Weapons: Weapon whose explosive power is generated by a nuclear reaction e.g. atomic or hydrogen bomb that generate from nuclear reaction Currently 17,000 nuclear weapons on the planet Subject to a variety of forms of international regulation including the Non-Proliferation Treaty 1968 Considered weapons of mass destruction- power developed from nuclear weapons is beyond norms of conventional weapons Effects of Nuclear Weapons in Hiroshima 1945- destroyed cities from the shock waves from the bombs; damages were not understood by scientists because civilians were not tested in the creation of nuclear bombs NuclearArms Control- early Cold War Arms: efforts to limit the production (factories, research) and or deployment of arms (stationing them in allies or your own territory to be used) through international agreements- countries agree not to create nuclear weapon based on wasteful of arms race Nuclear Test Bans (details in readings) The Limited Test Ban Treaty 1963 The Threshold Test Ban Treaty 1974 The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty 1996 Non-Proliferation Treaty 1968 Prohibited states that did not have nuclear weapons from acquiring them- divided states between states that had nuclear weapons to states that will never acrquire them There was limited oversight and enforcement capabilities for this treaty- no punishment for states that were creating nuclear weapons The treaty banned states that possessed nuclear weapons from helping non-nuclear states to acquire them Non-signatories include India, Israel, Pakistan an dSouth Sudan- refused to sign and developed nuclear technology North Korea was a signatory but in 2003 withdrew from the treaty and no longer abide by the conditions OtherAttempts at NuclearArms Control StrategicArms Limitation Talks SULKS Talks 1972 The InterimAgreement: ceiling on the number of land and sea based nuclear missiles TheAnti-Ballistic Missile Treaty: limited to twoABM sites and not more than 100 interceptor missile- defensive and allowed two nuclear powers to have twoAMB site, relates back to deterrence and the belief that arms race would generate more instability SALT II 1979Agreement Imposes a ceiling of 2,250 nuclear missiles launches- limit the number of missiles Never ratified by the US Senate but adhered to by both sides However both also increased their overall number of warheads after signing the agreement- limit on launchers (deployment) but did not limit production Collapse of Soviet Union raises question about what do to with deployed nuclear weapons that were from USSR Then focus on IR shifted to ‘nuclear disarmament’ Nuclear Disarmament- act of reducing the number of arms that a country possesses Cooperative Threat Reduction Program 1993 Sponsored by US senator Sam Nunn and Richard Lugar Dedicated funds to safeguard nuclear material Foreign aid was extended to Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and other former Soviet states Succeeded as all nuclear weapons were removed from Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Belarus However, there were a lot of problems with Cooperative Threat Reduction Program Russia claimed that too much money were given toAmerican contractors Nuclear conversion programs were largely ineffective Russia could not account for all of the funds allocated to the program Russia curtailed access to areas containing weapons and nuclear materials- felt the program was way too intrusive Moves from arms control to nuclear disarmament- New Treaties created StrategicArms Reduction Talks I 1991 First arms control treaty to actually reduce levels to 1,600 launchers and 6,000 warheads each START II 1993 Further reduction to 3,500 warheads Ratified in the US in 1996 but not until 2000 in Russia Treaty on Strategic Offensive Reduction (SORT) 2002 Sought to reduce first offensive capabilities Reduced deployed arsenals to between 1,700 and 2,200 No requirement to dismantle or destroy the nuclear weapons New START 2010 Reduce deployed strategic weapons to no more than 1,550 warheads or 800 launchers by 2017 Established a compliance inspection regime New Push Start to ‘Global Zero’ Away to strengthen the NPT and pursue disarmament- 0 nuclear in deployment or production Argues cut number of nuclear weapon in nuclear countries would encourage non-nuclear weapon not to get them Argues money budget is too high on making nuclear weapons Getting to Global Zero: By 2018, Russia and US would reduce arsenal to 1000 warheads and all other NWS cap the total number of warheads in their arsenals By 2021, Russia and US reduce to 500 warheads based on a rigorous verification system, other NWS arsenals see proportional reductions By 2030, all Nuclear Weapon States (NWS) will sign and implement a legally binding international agreement for the reduction of all arsenal to zero total warheads with comprehensive verification and enforcement system in place Global Zero propose in 20 years all countries will change the normative idea
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