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Political Science
Political Science 2231E
Jessica Trisko

Wednesday, 10April, 2013 International Development What is economic growth? - GDP: The sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product. - GNI: The sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes plus net receipts of primary income from abroad. - FDI: The net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. What is Development - Poverty headcount: % of population living on under $1.25 per day - Government spending (consumption):All government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including public employees) and most expenditures on national defense - Literacy rate: the % of people 15+ who can read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life - Child mortality rate: The number of infants dying before reaching one, per 1,000 live births The Un’s Millennium Development Goals for 2015 - Eradicate poverty - Improve education - Increase gender equality - Decrease child mortality - Improve maternal health - Combat HIV/AIDS and other diseases - Ensure environmental stability Theories of Economic Development Modernization Theory (Walt Rostow) - “Stage theory” of development - all countries would progress along the same trajectory - Underdeveloped countries were at an earlier stage of development - Underdeveloped countries needed a push to overcome barriers to industrialization - Criticized for bing teleological (assumed outcome and process would be the same for all nations) and ignoring diversity in endowments Critiques of Modernization Theory - Questions concerning the duplication of earlier paths - Traditional social and political institutions are difficult to change - The theory is Eurocentric - The current international economic system is biased toward developed states Theories of Economic Development Dependency Theor(ies) - The international economy is dominated by a core of developed states with developing countries in the periphery - Poor countries are underdeveloped because the economy is biased against them; they cannot pursue same strategies of developing because core already exists - Falsified by “newly industrializing” countries who used export-led strategies of growth Critiques of MNCs - MNCs avoid paying their share of taxes - Inappropriate technology transferred to the region - MNCs do not bring capital into LDCs - MNCs control and manipulate the production of primary commodities - In general,
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