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Political Science 2231E term 2 lecture 1.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
Political Science 2231E
Professor
Jessica Trisko
Semester
Winter

Description
2231 term 2 lecture 1 1/9/2013 8:35:00 AM The Origins of the International System The Early international system Pre-1500: about 500 independent political units in Europe 1500-1800: dynastic or absolutist sates try to maintain political unity  division between state and society ( feudal systems, etc)  constant interstate wars o only for economic and political gain  transnational elites prevented total wars of destruction o European royalty were all related, intermarried, etc Europe in 1600 VS Europe in 1800 Post 1800: consolidation after the revolutionary and Napoleonic wars  In 1900, 20 independent political units in Europe  Largely due to the development of the modern nation-state 17 thCentury European Conflict The 30 years’ war (1618-1848)  Begins with protestant uprising in Bohemia and Austria, spreads throughout continent and loses its religious motivation  One of the longest continuous wars  Use of mercenary armies and territorial grabs o Could not get citizens to fight for them, no modern state yet  One of the largest, most deadly ( to citizens) wars ever o Some huge amount of German peasants were killed, aprox 30% Peace of Westphalia (1648)  Ended the 30 years’ war  Established sovereignty in international law  Recognizes that sovereignty rests with secular rulers  Gave each ruler the right to determine the religion of their state 18 thcentury Europe: Great powers generally, great powers are both economically and militarily strong Major players in the system with relatively large territory and population  France, England, Austria, Russia, Prussia and the Ottoman Empire Goal was to prevent a single power dominating  Most wars were against a power trying to gain more control, and being blocked by the other powers “Grand Alliance” of Austria, England and the Netherlands Vs France (1740 – 1748)  Prevented French domination over Spain War of Austrian Succession (1740- 1748)  France, Spain and Prussia vs Austria and England The Seven Years War (1756 – 1763) !8thCentury Revolutions American Revolution (1776 – 1783)  England and France passed on debt from the seven years’ war to the American colonies  Britain’s American colonies revolted  Independence won with French support French Revolution (1789 – 1793)  Disruption of the “Three estates” system  Topples the French monarchy and establishes constitutional rule through a national assembly  Promotes nationalism and liberalism as ideologies The Napoleonic Era (1792-1815) In 1799, general Napoleon wages a coup d’état and names himself First Consul of France  After he came back (and lost) Egypt to Britain Territorial gains by 1810  Controls Spain, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Poland and most of Germany and Italy  Allied with Austria, Prussia and Denmark  Opposed by Britain First defeat in 1814 forces his abdication Second defeat  Battle of waterloo  Marks peak of British power The Concert of Europe Congress of Vienna (1814-1815)  Territorial settlement and guarantee of the neutrality of buffer states o They created the borders of Europe  Network of mutually reinforcing treaties  Security alliance betw
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