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Political Science 2231E March 13.docx

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Western University
Political Science
Political Science 2231E
Jessica Trisko

2231 March 13 3/13/2013 7:34:00 AM The Unipolar Era What defines unipolarity?  One major power  Command of the global commons o The US can credibly threaten to deny use to others o Sea, space, air  The absence of competition Is unipolarity peaceful?  Yes o no great power conflict: only one great power o no structural sources of conflict: balancing is not possible given power preponderance o the US acts as a global policeman: conflicts do not escalate, rogue states are kept in check  no - there has not been a threat comparable to the Soviet Union but, o the us has been at war for 14 of the 20 years since the system became unipolar o the type of conflict that emerges depends on the strategy that the United States adopts Unipolar Grand Strategies  An approach to controlling the world system  Primacy o Aims at preventing the rise of a peer competitor though overwhelming power preponderance o Makes it impossible for minor powers to deter o Make sit difficult for other countries to project power in defense of the state without US approval o Arguably characterized the Bush administration policy of preemptive war – fought to keep an opponent from acquiring military capabilities that would shift the balance of power in its favor, not because you simply think they may attack you  Selective engagement o Emphasis on strategies to defend the status quo o Military force should be used with discrimination based on limited conception of national interests o Us unable to deter smaller powers form obtaining means of defense unless it engages in preventative action o Example: North Korea and US under Obama  Cooperative Security o Aims at maintaining an interdependent world at peace through international institutions and collective action o Presumes that democracies will not compete or go to war with one another o Contends that use of military force should be sanctioned and preventative  Intervene before all out war erupts, more act against wars happening o Example: Syrian situation and Libya (how everyone came together and helped and shit) o Problem: assumes a high level of strategic interdependence and that states will rise above narrow conceptions of national interests  Restraint o The US is physically secure  No nation is going to attack the US homeland o Economic interests do not require the projection of military power o Peacetime military commitments and deployments may be harmful to long-term security  They tend to attract opposition and threats o This requires a very high degree of self-restraint and a public figure to actually say “we aint doin this shit” o Involves avoiding the responsibilities of maintaining world order  Most major powers often expect the US to show leadership in these situations US foreign Policy in the Unipolar era Pursuit of primacy  Pivot to Asia and concern about balancing China Prevention of Terrorism  Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, actions in Yemen Prevention of spread of WMDs to rogue states  Focus on North Korea and Iran Commitment to help solve regional conflicts  Palestinian negotiations, support for South Sudan, etc Essay Formal structure from last semester not necessarily the proper format here depending on your topic/thesis Small Wars, Civil Wars and Intervention Major Wars  The United States has engaged in 5 major wars post cold-war o The Gulf war o Bosnia o Kosovo o Afghanistan o Iraq The gulf war (1991)  17 Jan 1991  goal was to force Iraq out of Kuwait, which it had claimed as a province in August 1990  Iraq was pissed because they though Kuwait was slant drilling, and used that as an excuse to occupy  First US military victor since ww2  Came through Saudi Arabia into Kuwait  Won mostly due to precise air attacks o Precession air power (operation instant thunder)  US was prepared for a conventional air assault but didn’t end up having to do it Bosnia (1995)  War breaks out between the Bosnian army and Bosnian Serbs
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